THE CONVERSATION

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The Conversation
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This article is about the 1974 film. For other uses, see Conversation (disambiguation).
The Conversation

Theatrical release poster
Directed by
Francis Ford Coppola
Produced by
Francis Ford Coppola
Written by
Francis Ford Coppola
Starring
Gene Hackman
John Cazale
Allen Garfield
Cindy Williams
Frederic Forrest
Music by
David Shire
Cinematography
Bill Butler
Edited by
Walter Murch
Richard Chew
Production
company
The Directors Company
The Coppola Company
American Zoetrope
Distributed by
Paramount Pictures
Release date
April 7, 1974
Running time
113 minutes
Country
United States
Language
English
Budget
$1.6 million
Box office
$4.4 million
The Conversation is a 1974 American mystery thriller film written, produced and directed by Francis Ford Coppola and starring Gene Hackman with supporting roles by John Cazale, Allen Garfield, Cindy Williams, Frederic Forrest, Harrison Ford, Teri Garr and Robert Duvall.
The plot revolves around a surveillance expert and the moral dilemma he faces when his recordings reveal a potential murder. Coppola cited the 1966 film Blowup as a key influence. However, since the film was released to theaters just a few months before Richard Nixon resigned as President, he felt that audiences interpreted the film to be a reaction to the Watergate scandal.
The Conversation won the Grand Prix du Festival International du Film, the highest honor at the 1974 Cannes Film Festival. It was nominated for three Academy Awards in 1974 and lost Best Picture to The Godfather Part II, another Francis Ford Coppola film. In 1995, it was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant”.
Originally, Paramount Pictures distributed the film worldwide. Paramount retains American rights to this day but international rights are now held by Miramax Films and StudioCanal in conjunction with American Zoetrope.

Contents  [hide] 
1
Plot
2
Cast
3
Production
3.1
Inspiration
4
Reception
4.1
Box office
4.2
Critical response
4.3
Accolades
5
Influence
6
See also
7
References
7.1
Bibliography
8
External links

Plot[edit]
Harry Caul is a surveillance expert who runs his own company in San Francisco. Caul is obsessed with his own privacy; his apartment is almost bare behind its triple-locked door and burglar alarm, he uses pay phones to make calls, claims to have no home telephone and his office is enclosed in wire mesh in a corner of a much larger warehouse. He has no friends, his girlfriend Amy knows nothing about him, and his one hobby is playing along to jazz records on a tenor saxophone in the privacy of his apartment.
Caul insists that he is not responsible for the actual content of the conversations he records or the use to which his clients put his surveillance activities. However, he is racked by guilt over a past wiretap job which resulted in the murder of three people. This sense of guilt is amplified by his devout Catholicism.
Caul, his colleague Stan and some freelance associates have taken on the task of bugging the conversation of a couple as they walk through crowded Union Square in San Francisco, surrounded by a cacophony of background noise. Amid the small-talk, the couple discuss fears that they are being watched, and mention a discreet meeting at a hotel room in a few days. The challenging task of recording this conversation is accomplished by multiple surveillance operatives located in different positions around the square. After Caul has merged and filtered the different tapes, the final result is a sound recording in which the words themselves are crystal clear, but their meaning remains ambiguous.
Caul feels increasingly uneasy about what may happen to the couple once the client hears the tape. He plays the tape again and again, gradually refining its accuracy. He concentrates on one key phrase hidden under the sound of a street musician: “He’d kill us if he got the chance”. Caul constantly reinterprets the speakers’ subtle emphasis on particular words in this phrase, trying to figure out their meaning in the light of what he suspects and subsequently discovers.
Caul avoids handing in the tape to the aide of the man who commissioned the surveillance. Afterward, he finds himself under increasing pressure from the client’s aide and is himself followed, tricked, and bugged. The tape of the conversation is eventually stolen from him in a moment when his guard is down.
Caul eventually discovers the truth: the couple were talking about killing the woman’s husband – Caul’s client. Caul gets a phone call from his client’s assistant, who tells him not to look any further into the matter, and says, “We’ll be listening.” Caul goes on a frantic search for a listening device, tearing up his apartment to no avail. He sits amid the wreckage, playing the only thing in his apartment left intact: his saxophone.
Cast[edit]
Gene Hackman as Harry Caul
John Cazale as Stan
Allen Garfield as William P. “Bernie” Moran
Cindy Williams as Ann
Frederic Forrest as Mark
Harrison Ford as Martin Stett
Michael Higgins as Paul
Elizabeth MacRae as Meredith
Teri Garr as Amy Fredericks
Mark Wheeler as Receptionist
Robert Shields as The Mime
Phoebe Alexander as Lurleen
Robert Duvall as The Director[1]
Production[edit]
Coppola has cited Michelangelo Antonioni’s Blowup (1966) as a key influence on his conceptualization of the film’s themes, such as surveillance versus participation, and perception versus reality. “Francis had seen [it] a year or two before, and had the idea to fuse the concept of Blowup with the world of audio surveillance.”[2]
On the DVD commentary, Coppola says he was shocked to learn that the film utilized the very same surveillance and wire-tapping equipment that members of the Nixon Administration used to spy on political opponents prior to the Watergate scandal. Coppola has said this is the reason the film gained part of the recognition it has received, but that this is entirely coincidental. Not only was the script for The Conversation completed in the mid-1960s (before the Nixon Administration came to power) but the spying equipment used in the film was discovered through research and the use of technical advisers and not, as many believed, by revelatory newspaper stories about the Watergate break-in. Coppola also noted that filming of The Conversation had been completed several months before the most revelatory Watergate stories broke in the press. Since the film was released to theaters just a few months before Richard Nixon resigned as President, Coppola felt that audiences interpreted the film to be a reaction to both the Watergate scandal and its fall-out.
The original cinematographer of The Conversation was Haskell Wexler. Severe creative and personal differences with Coppola led to Wexler’s firing shortly after production began and Coppola replaced him with Bill Butler. Wexler’s footage on The Conversation was completely reshot, except for the technically complex surveillance scene in Union Square.[3] This would be the first of two Oscar-nominated films where Wexler would be fired and replaced by Butler, the second being One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975), where Wexler had similar problems with Miloš Forman.[4]
Walter Murch served as the supervising editor and sound designer. Murch had more or less a free hand during the editing process, since Coppola was already working on The Godfather Part II at the time.[5] Coppola noted in the DVD commentary that Hackman had a very difficult time adapting to the Harry Caul character because it was so much unlike himself. Coppola says that Hackman was at the time an outgoing and approachable person who preferred casual clothes, whereas Caul was meant to be a socially awkward loner who wore a rain coat and out-of-style glasses. Coppola said that Hackman’s efforts to tap into the character made the actor moody and irritable on-set but otherwise Coppola got along well with his leading man. Coppola also notes on the commentary that Hackman considers this one of his favorite performances.
The Conversation features a piano score composed and performed by David Shire. The score was created before the film was shot.[6] On some cues, Shire used musique concrete techniques, taking the taped sounds of the piano and distorting them in different ways to create alternative tonalities to round out the score. The score was released on CD by Intrada Records in 2001.[7]
Inspiration[edit]
The character of Harry Caul was inspired by surveillance technology expert Martin Kaiser, who also served as a technical consultant on the film.[8][9]
According to Kaiser, the final scene of the film – in which Caul is convinced he is being eavesdropped in his apartment, cannot find the listening device, and consoles himself by playing his saxophone – was inspired by the passive covert listening devices created by Léon Theremin, such as the Great Seal bug. “He couldn’t find out where [the bug] was because it was the instrument itself.”[10]
Reception[edit]
Box office[edit]
The film made $4,420,000 in its domestic gross on a $1,600,000 budget.
Critical response[edit]
The film currently holds 98% on Rotten Tomatoes with an average of 8.7/10 based on 48 reviews of which 47 were positive and 1 negative with the consensus: “This tense, paranoid thriller presents Francis Ford Coppola at his finest—and makes some remarkably advanced arguments about technology’s role in society that still resonate today.”[11]
Roger Ebert’s contemporary review gave The Conversation four out of four stars, and described Hackman’s portrayal of Caul as “one of the most affecting and tragic characters in the movies.”[12] In 2001, Ebert added The Conversation to his “Great Movies” list, describing Hackman’s performance as a “career peak” and writing that the film “comes from another time and place than today’s thrillers, which are so often simple-minded.”[13]
In 1995, The Conversation was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant”. Gene Hackman has said it’s his favorite of all the films he’s made. In 2012, the Motion Picture Editors Guild listed the film as the eleventh best-edited film of all time based on a survey of its membership.[14]
Accolades[edit]
The Conversation won the Grand Prix du Festival International du Film, the highest honor at the 1974 Cannes Film Festival.[15] The film was also nominated for three Academy Awards for 1974,[16] but the Academy preferred Coppola’s The Godfather Part II, unlike critics in the National Board of Review and the National Society of Film Critics.[17]
Award
Date of ceremony
Category
Recipient(s)
Result
Ref(s)
Academy Awards
April 8, 1975
Best Picture
Francis Ford Coppola
Nominated
[16]
Best Original Screenplay
Francis Ford Coppola
Nominated
Best Sound
Walter Murch and Art Rochester
Nominated
British Academy Film Awards
1975
Best Direction
Francis Ford Coppola
Nominated
[18]
Best Actor
Gene Hackman
Nominated
Best Screenplay
Francis Ford Coppola
Nominated
Best Editing
Walter Murch, Richard Chew
Won
Best Soundtrack
Art Rochester, Nat Boxer, Mike Ejve, Walter Murch
Won
Cannes Film Festival
May 9–24, 1974
Grand Prix du Festival International du Film
Francis Ford Coppola
Won
[15]
Directors Guild of America
1974
Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures
Francis Ford Coppola
Nominated
[19]
Golden Globes
January 25, 1975
Best Motion Picture – Drama
The Conversation
Nominated
[20]
Best Director – Motion Picture
Francis Ford Coppola
Nominated
Best Screenplay
Francis Ford Coppola
Nominated
Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama
Gene Hackman
Nominated
National Board of Review
December 25, 1974
Best Film
The Conversation
Won
[21]
Best Director
Francis Ford Coppola
Won
Best Actor
Gene Hackman
Won
Top Ten Films
The Conversation
Won
National Society of Film Critics
January 5, 1975
Best Director
Francis Ford Coppola
Won
[22]

Influence[edit]
According to film critic Kim Newman, the 1998 film Enemy of the State, which also stars Gene Hackman as co-protagonist, could be construed as a “continuation of The Conversation.” Hackman’s character in Enemy of the State closely resembles Caul: he dons the same translucent raincoat and his workshop is nearly identical to Caul’s. Enemy of the State also includes a scene which is highly similar to The Conversation’s opening surveillance scene in San Francisco’s Union Square.[23]
See also[edit]
List of American films of 1974
List of films featuring surveillance
References[edit]
Jump up
^ Hilditch, Nick (27 February 2002). “The Conversation (1974)”. BBC. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
Jump up
^ Ondaatje 2002, p. 152.
Jump up
^ Stafford, Jeff. “The Conversation (1974)”. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
Jump up
^ Townsend, Sylvia (19 December 2014). “Haskell Wexler and the Making of ‘One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest'”. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
Jump up
^ Ondaatje 2002, p. 157.
Jump up
^ “discussion of soundtrack”. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
Jump up
^ Intrada Special Collection Volume 2
Jump up
^ “Martin Kaiser”. IMDb. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
Jump up
^ Martin Kaiser; Bob Stokes. “Odyssey of an Eavesdropper”. Martykaiser.com. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
Jump up
^ GBPPR2 (22 September 2011). “The Last HOPE: TSCM – A Brief Primer on Electronic Surveillance and “Bug” Detection (Complete)”. Retrieved 22 May 2017 – via YouTube.
Jump up
^ Movie Reviews Pictures – Rotten Tomatoes
Jump up
^ Ebert, Roger (1974). “The Conversation,” 01 January 1974, Retrieved 28 November 2012
Jump up
^ Ebert, Roger (2001). “The Conversation” 04 February 2001, Retrieved 28 November 2012
Jump up
^ “The 75 Best Edited Films”. Editors Guild Magazine. 1 (3). May 2012.
^
Jump up to:
a b “Festival de Cannes: The Conversation”. festival-cannes.com. Retrieved 2009-04-26.
^
Jump up to:
a b “The 47th Academy Awards (1975) Nominees and Winners”. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
Jump up
^ Berliner 2010, p. 61.
Jump up
^ “Film in 1975”. British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
Jump up
^ “DGA Awards History”. Directors Guild of America. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
Jump up
^ “Conversation, The”. Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
Jump up
^ “1974 Award Winners”. National Board of Review. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
Jump up
^ “Past Awards”. National Society of Film Critics. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
Jump up
^ Pramaggiore & Wallis 2005, p. 283.
Bibliography[edit]
Berliner, Todd (2010). Hollywood Incoherent: Narration in Seventies Cinema. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292739540.
Ondaatje, Michael (2002). The Conversations: Walter Murch and the Art of Editing Film. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Pramaggiore, Maria T.; Wallis, Tom (2005). Film: A Critical Introduction. London: Laurence King Publishing. ISBN 1856694429. Retrieved 22 May 2017 – via Google Books.
External links[edit]

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Categories: 1974 filmsEnglish-language films1970s mystery films1970s psychological thriller filmsAmerican filmsAmerican mystery filmsAmerican psychological filmsAmerican psychological thriller filmsAmerican thriller filmsAmerican Zoetrope filmsFilms about security and surveillanceFilms directed by Francis Ford CoppolaFilms set in the San Francisco Bay AreaFilms set in San FranciscoFilms shot in San FranciscoPalme d’Or winnersScreenplays by Francis Ford CoppolaUnited States National Film Registry films

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