DEAD SUNNY AFTERNOONS

DEAD SUNNY AFTERNOONS

Thomson, David (2005) Dead sunny afternoons NEW REPUBLIC, 6&13 42-43

Daniel Fuchs is not a household name like Hemmingway, Faulkner and Updike. He was a writer of the 30’s and died in 1993. His fictional works did not sell so he had a day job as teaching substitute for 7 years in the Brooklyn public schools. His first three novels SUMMER IN WILLIAMSBURG (1934) HOMAGE TO BLENTHOLT (1936) and LOW COMPANY (1937) did not make much money but got a modicum of critical support. Then he headed to Hollywood to write scripts for movies. Rather, he was to improve upon already written scripts that didn’t go well with the movie. Thus, he had a part in DARK ISLAND, NO BREAD TO BUTTER, and CRISS CROSS. His most commercial success was LOVE ME OR LEAVE with Doris Day. He also did an admirable job on ROCK OF THE WESTIES.

LOVE ME OR LEAVE ME won him an Oscar and his final screen play was JEANNE EAGLES in 1957. What he did know was that Hollywood was a lot better than Brooklyn and he could write to make Hollywood suits happy. Crowds enjoyed happy mid-range not too intellectual films with happy endings. Middle brows buy tickets. Highbrows enjoy art on the cheap.

And so a new compilation is out with pieces of many books by Fuchs. He was happy because he believed he knew his limits, he saw enjoying California as his day job and worked when he was needed for great money and a life far from Brooklyn.

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ADDICTION/HABITUATION/COMPULSION

ADDICTION COMPULSION-HABITUATION EXPLAINED
What is the difference between addiction and compulsion? The explanation now given is but one so therefore, be sure to check others.
Addiction generally means that the stimuli is a chemical of some kind like heroin. Although there can be a few that can limit their usage, most find that as the chemical increases in their system they build a tolerance so they need more and more. The drug be it chemical, pill, or smoke keeps a person wanting more. If they should withdraw, they suffer. They are addicted. Additionally, some can become more addicted quickly than others. This is probably due to genetics, environment or both.
Compulsion means that an individual sees something or learns something that is generally dangerous to themselves or others. Compulsions can be less visible. Watching hardcore pornography is habituating. That means, there is withdrawal from organic chemicals or an imbalance in bio- chemicals that particularly due to the loss of seeing the movies. Many things that are not visibly inculcated into one’s system are more likely to become compulsions. You don’t over dose on porn, but you become very irritable and withdrawn. It can ruin your life. Compulsions are due to again genetics, environment or both.
Both addiction and compulsion are diseases. Why? Some become much more vulnerable to both than others. This vulnerability means that contact is likely to end with hospitalization. The disease aspect means the level of defense against the above is quite low. There are some addictions and compulsions that just are “catching” to some and not to others. The bio-chemical, cognitive imbalance and crimnogenic environments are the outer stimuli. The internal defense is the internal trigger.
Although both drug and porn terms and related have woven themselves into our culture, they are serious, and in some instances kill. Now check the other position that indicates that the topic discussed is generally a rational choice made from a psychological and sociological calculus.
Prof. Joel C. Snell
Socialvibes.net

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BENSON BRADFORD SNELL

A VERY SIMPLE INTRODUCTION TO ALGORITHIMS
ABSTRACT: This introduction is so simple as to encourage one to “just get into the door.” Algorithms takes numerous scattered numbers and arrange them so that there is a nearly flawless step by step sequence so that it helps to arrange numbers to solve problems and also helps make some decisions along the way.
INTRODUCTION: In this author’s real life an algorithm was a math formula that the author could bluff students and fellow faculty into believing that he understood the term. He did not.
Then this person came across an article in the ECONOMIST(“Business by the numbers” 2007/ 7/13) on what was an algorithm . However too much information was given. So the author rewrote it and simplified it on the basis that one sentence or two could do the job. (algorithms/ socialvibes.net) It was still unsettling to non-math people including the author.
Algorithms explained from socialvibes.net remained the number one entry on Google for a couple of years. However, it was still too complicated.
In the meantime, I asked a number of academics what is an” algorithm?” I got all kinds of answers save the correct one. Alas, it was time to START to explain what algorithms do.
DEFINITION: an “algorithm” can take a lot of JUMBLED numbers, order them in proper order in a step by step sequence. Thus Fred’s Delivery Service has a series of stops. If the 5 stops (1,2,3,4,5) are slightly out of order, the whole thing is out of order .
Fred’s Delivery Service now have 5 stops that will make things easier, faster, and more profitable to Fred and please customers. The algorithm formula makes sure that various homes of stops are arranged with cunning efficiency.
To stay with the promise of simplification, that formulation is saved for another day. Indeed there are a number of formulas or variations of a formula
If you want to calculate, please go to the Economist article or search out algorithms on Wikipedia. Thus, the project has begun.
REFERENCES:
__________”Business by the Numbers” September7/15/ 2002
Snell, Joel Algorithms/ Social Vibes.net
__________Algorithms/ Wikipedia

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ALGORITHIMS

A VERY SIMPLE INTRODUCTION TO ALGORITHIMS
ABSTRACT: This introduction is so simple as to encourage one to “just get into the door.” Algorithms takes numerous scattered numbers and arrange them so that there is a nearly flawless step by step sequence so that it helps to arrange numbers to solve problems and also helps make some decisions along the way.
INTRODUCTION: In this author’s real life an algorithm was a math formula that the author could bluff students and fellow faculty into believing that he understood the term. He did not.
Then this person came across an article in the ECONOMIST(“Business by the numbers” 2007/ 7/13) on what was an algorithm . However too much information was given. So the author rewrote it and simplified it on the basis that one sentence or two could do the job. (algorithms/ socialvibes.net) It was still unsettling to non-math people including the author.
Algorithms explained from socialvibes.net remained the number one entry on Google for a couple of years. However, it was still too complicated.
In the meantime, I asked a number of academics what is an” algorithm?” I got all kinds of answers save the correct one. Alas, it was time to START to explain what algorithms do.
DEFINITION: an “algorithm” can take a lot of JUMBLED numbers, order them in proper order in a step by step sequence. Thus Fred’s Delivery Service has a series of stops. If the 5 stops (1,2,3,4,5) are slightly out of order, the whole thing is out of order .
Fred’s Delivery Service now have 5 stops that will make things easier, faster, and more profitable to Fred and please customers. The algorithm formula makes sure that various homes of stops are arranged with cunning efficiency.
To stay with the promise of simplification, that formulation is saved for another day. Indeed there are a number of formulas or variations of a formula
If you want to calculate, please go to the Economist article or search out algorithms on Wikipedia. Thus, the project has begun.
REFERENCES:
__________”Business by the Numbers” September7/15/ 2002
Snell, Joel Algorithms/ Social Vibes.net
__________Algorithms/ Wikipedia

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BOTTOM/TOP

BOTTOM/TOP

(MTV)

One can imagine that some of the gay culture is going to drift over to the straight culture. As an example, TOP means that an individual enjoys the dominant aggressive role. BOTTOM means that the individual prefers the passive role. Each has its own benefits. Whatever is involved in sex play how much is nature and nurture is subject to debate. However, the stereotype is that masculine types like top, feminine likes bottom.

That is the stereotype. So, let’s anecdotally look what might be happening behind close doors. A masculine male is supposed to be a TOP. A feminine male likes bottom. So, there you go. It is all worked out. However, what one expects of the other does not necessarily mean what one says in public. TOPS may secretly want to be bottom or both.

And so as time goes on as the sexes are 99% genetically the same, however for gays genes can be impacted in the early stages of rebirth. For straights, this is also the case.
At any rate, a straight girl is looking on-line for a date. Here is the real story.

She loves to shop, talk on the phone with her girl friends, gossip at school and loves volleyball. She is also good in softball. She wants 2 children someday with a husband that loves kids and will stick it out until the end. She tried TOP and it was okay.

The online characteristics are the following:

SWF looking for male 19- to 29. He must like watching football, walks in the park, backpacking, and video games. Slender female wants to be TOP/ negotiable. I do not want children.

Now what she describes is partly true. The rest could be true. What she is describing is a female that guys like. In other words, she is a sexual buddy who likes what he does but has her own life. That is she is not clingy.

She also says that she can be sexually aggressive. Further, they will have a life that is strikingly different from those who have children. If she says she wants kids and she likes
BOTTOM. She is a very traditional gal that certain males want. However, more males would probably like the first description and that gets the relationship going.

Then she can change her mind once the marriage begins. On the other hand the male really wants to hang out with his buddies and she is not going to see him much.

What does he say?

SWM likes walks, movies, and sports. Wants female who likes those things too.
BOTTOM / NEGIOTIABLE. (What a sensitive guy. He may be a keeper.)

And so on. TOP/BOTTOM is a nice euphemistic way to get an important issue out of the way or to lie in a nice way.

You may start seeing personal with reference to BOTTOM/ TOP. Now you know what it may mean.

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FEMALES SHOULD LIGHTLY SLAP MALES PERIODICALLY

FEMALES SHOULD SLAP MALES PERIODICALLY

Females have been historically mistreated. They have been sold into prostitution. They have been raped and beaten. Unfortunately, there is literature even today where women are sprayed on and humiliated. Males on balance are larger than females and have taken advantage of this dominance.
This is the same thing as the treatment of other marginalized people. Daughters may want to be taught that this is a way to get back at males for his sins against the smaller sex.
No one is saying that the hitting or slapping should interfere with the relationship between the two. The spanking or slapping does not mean that there is an end to the relationship between the two.
Further, for some couples aggression is part of their sex play. Some women have been harmed in their socialization and want to be hit. It is best to encourage therapy that makes this hitting symbolic.
Males are not to hit so hard that they need to stop the relationship or seek health care. The hitting is symbolic and part of an ongoing relationship.
In some German schools, all students hit their heads with their fist lightly . It is to remind them of all the Jews and others that they killed in world war II.
It is this in mind when slapping a male.
Prof. Joel Snell
SOCIALVIBES.NET

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THE INEVITABLES

Kelly, Kevin (2016) The Inevitable: Understanding The Twelve Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future, New York: Penguin Random House, 312 pages.

Kelly is a futurist and attempts to describe the structure (networks and related) and functions (becoming, cognifying, flowing, screening, accessing, sharing, filtering, remixing, interacting, tracking, questioning, and beginning.) To define each function is not necessary, the reviewer will use more common terminology.
This is not the usual futurist book. The reviewer was a futurist for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and a Fellow in a Washington D.C. think tank. By defining his terms, he gives examples that may enlighten the reader.
However, he underlines how difficult to predict the future and then does the opposite. As an example, robots will take us over. I can recall a number of statements in other books which Artificial Intelligence (Robots) do take control of society. Why? A human wants to control social forces and territory and makes a very mean and strong machine that in conquering the area it then turns on the owner and kills them. The artificial intelligence then creates powerful but submissives to the Alpha Robot. Homo Sapiens are slaughtered.
The value of this book is that certain technologies serendipitously emerge and change in a number of ways by the functions described above. The Inevitable make that book exciting with such a title. However, he is quick to moderate ” Inevitable ” into a soft determinism.
Human misery, war, prostitution, poverty, and the elements of violent weather are among the variableness that are lightly discussed. At times the book is a creature of discomfort. As talented as the author appears to be, he tries to stay away from cartoon futures where we all live happily because of technology. On the other hand, examples are given that mute the human condition. In many ways this is a theory book about a future. We really are not sure what that future may be, but there is a pleasant certainty to his writing.
This is a book for those who are knowledgeable and who know a bit more about futurist jargon than the average reader. It is a worthwhile book for the target reader.
Prof. Joel Snell
Kirkwood College
Cedar Rapids, Iowa
joelsnell@hotmail.com

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THE FIFTIES

The Fifties
5647 Corby St.
I grew up in the same house in the same town that few others experience. My family included my mom, dad, sister, and brother. I was the youngest. The folks who were born in 1943 are claimed by no one in terms of generations. The boomers started their lives in 1946 and the Silent Generation are phased out by historians just before the beginning of World War II.
So, I always remembered that folks in authority talked in a condescending way to us. They were experts on everything and the “American Way” was to be appreciated by all the people who were yet to born and the folks all over the world.
As I recall, I just kept my mouth shut. I did not know that the America that I came to know would not get richer and richer. The fifties, most of the middle class did pretty good. My family was middle class and my father who was the only pay check made his largest commision in adjusted dollars in 1955. We had a nice modest house on the tip of the connection between Country Club and Benson. Even today, I can put the street number between on my url and I can see the home of my family. Not only can I see the outside, but much of the inside.
In 1950,America was about 150 million people and my hometown of Omaha was 250,000. The city started at the Missouri River and ended at 72nd Street. My mother lived in the same house from 1944 until 1994. Ironically, the day that she left her home Harriet Nelson of “Ozzie and Harriet” passed.
During the fifties I was about 5 feet 1 inch and one hundred and fifteen pounds. By 59′ I was 5′ 10 inches and the same weight. So I was sort of tall and skinny. However, I didn’t have any pimples

3020 MERIDITH
I was sitting in my 1948 Blue Anglia. It was the same kind of car that Sir Paul McCartney used in” Give my Regards to Boardwalk. I was junior in high school. I left the car running so that I could gently move away from the curb in case the police came by. I looked at the porch where I got stung by a bee as a child. It was cold out and I could barely see with tears bluring my sight. My grandmother’s house was dark with a front porch, two stories with a big tree out front. I turned off the radio. It was KOIL or KOWH in Omaha. As I sat alone, I thought that time was a puzzle. What I wanted to happen was for time to somehow go backward.
I hope that heaven had a place for Grandma Annie and myself and everybody else. Maybe we would get along better over there. I wanted to go back about two decades to when Grandma was alive. Her last day, she had been to the medical doctor for an annual checkup. She took the trolley downtown and into his 2nd floor MEDICAL ARTS building. He indicated that she was in great shape for her age (somewhere in her late 70’s) and he be happy to see her next year at the same time.
She got back on the trolley, took her coat off and hung in the vestibule. She went over to the landing and decided to get something to eat from the converted ice box. There she turned around and walked up the stairs. About the 5th step, she slumped on the stair step and died. Friends and neighbors attended a service held at the mortuary. My parents minister gave the eulogy. It took me a few years to figure out that the eulogy given was one said all over the country. “Mom” is dead. Mothers meant so much to all of us. I saw my dad cry for the first time. My Uncle Bill’s head was down. Annie appears to have passed from this world.
When Grandma Dode came to the front door after I had been to a movie and let me in, I had a funny feeling, Grandma Dode was a wonderful lady who took care of me when my parents traveled. She came over to me and put her arms around me. Grandma is dead. I was 5 years old and a part of my world collapsed. There was a picture of Jesus hanging on the wall. I was crying and shaking my fist at Jesus. Grandma Dode was trying was trying to explain to me, that Jesus was just taking her home. That he did not take away my grandmother. I didn’t get the logic. Jesus takes Grandma home and I won’t see her.
So I am out in front of my grandmother’s house. I just got off a date and the young lady lived near my grandmother’s house. So now I have 16 or 17 years and I so want to go back. I think that she was perfectly happy with the life that she has just ended. My grandfather George owned a business downtown. It was a print shop. He was George who many on the trolley thought was the greatest. He always had joke. I know so little about him except that after he died Granma took the trolley out to Forest Lawn. There was many Sunday spent that way. Annie opened up her house. Her master bedroom was cleaned out and rented by the week. Two brothers live in the front overlooking Meredith, and the painter man lived in the back room.
Annie washed their clothes, cooked breakfast and dinner for them and took in mending. George had left some money, but the rest of the money came from the partners who bought the building. There was
Bill Wakefield Sr. in the basement, Gustaf Wallin in the first floor along with his son Bill. Grandpa George died of a nervous condition caused by hot lead print. When he could no longer go to work, Annie and my Uncle Bill laid him on the dining room table. There he slowly passed away. The nervous breakdown, it was later discovered came from the hot melting leading fumes that cooled into new letters. It was called hot type and after it started to cool, a new letter would be formed. My grandfather inhaled that junk day after day. It killed him.
So Annie went to work. She started a boarding house, watched over 3 adult men, sewed, and raised 2 kids, my father and his brother. Dad’s brother was a juvenile delinquent. He was driving 75 miles an hour on Fontanelle Blvd. when the police caught him. Along the way, he aged out. He raised 2 kids. The second was very retarded and he spent the rest of his life taking care of her and fixing furnaces.
At any rate, Annie worked so hard and all of her men were her flock. However, she still needed help with the Painter man. He came home drunk all the time so that Grandma had him thrown out. That was not too hard because he stayed at Grandma’s to get away from his wife who lived in another part of the city. There are flashes of those days. There were grapevines in the back, a garage, and a clothes line. Grandma quickly filled the room upstairs with her things and that was probably the last summer before she died. Something died in me.
.

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JUKE BOX/BEACH BOYS

JUKE BOX/ BEACH BOYS
FIRST CD
DO YOU REMEMBER?
COME GO WITH ME
DO YOU WANNA DANCE
PEGGY SUE
I CAN HEAR MUSIC
CHAPEL OF LOVE
WHY DO FOOLS FALL IN LOVE
GIRL FROM NEW YORK CITY
THEN I KISSED HER
HUSHABYE
BEACH BOYS MEDLEY 1

SECOND CD
CROCODILE ROCK
I’M SO YOUNG (ALTERNATIVE VERSION)
REMEMBER, WALKIN’ IN THE SAND
UNDER THE BOARDWALK
ROCK N’ ROLL MUSIC
BLUEBERY HILL
BARBARA ANN
SCHOOL DAYS
SEA CRUISE
JOHNNY B. GOOD
BEACH BOYS MEDLEY 2

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CRONY CAPITALISM

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CRONY CAPITALISM
Posted on July 2, 2017 by joelsnell99
Crony capitalism
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Crony capitalism is an economy in which success in business depends on close relationships between business people and government officials. It may be exhibited by favoritism in the distribution of legal permits, government grants, special tax breaks, or other forms of state interventionism.[1][2] Crony capitalism arises when business cronyism and related self-serving behavior by businesses or businesspeople spills over into politics and government,[3] or when self-serving friendships and family ties between businessmen and the government influence the economy and society to the extent that it corrupts public-serving economic and political ideals.
The term “crony capitalism” made a significant impact in the public arena as an explanation of the Asian financial crisis.[4] It is also used to describe governmental decisions favoring “cronies” of governmental officials. In this context, the term is often used interchangeably with corporate welfare; to the extent that there is a difference, it may be the extent to which a government action can be said to benefit individuals rather than entire industries.
Contents  [hide] 
1
In practice
1.1
Crony capitalism index
2
In finance
3
In sections of an economy
4
In developing economies
5
Political viewpoints
5.1
Socialist critique
5.2
Capitalist critique
6
See also
7
References
8
Notes
9
Further reading
10
External links
In practice[edit]
Transparency International’s overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2016
Crony capitalism exists along a continuum. In its lightest form, crony capitalism consists of collusion among market players which is officially tolerated or encouraged by the government. While perhaps lightly competing against each other, they will present a unified front (sometimes called a trade association or industry trade group) to the government in requesting subsidies or aid or regulation.[5] Newcomers to a market may find it difficult to find loans, acquire shelf space, or receive official sanction. Some such systems are very formalized, such as sports leagues and the Medallion System of the taxicabs of New York City, but often the process is more subtle, such as expanding training and certification exams to make it more expensive for new entrants to enter a market and thereby limit competition. In technological fields, there may evolve a system whereby new entrants may be accused of infringing on patents that the established competitors never assert against each other. In spite of this, some competitors may succeed when the legal barriers are light.[citation needed]
The term crony capitalism is generally used when these practices come to dominate the economy as a whole or to dominate the most valuable industries in an economy.[2] Intentionally ambiguous laws and regulations are common in such systems. Taken strictly, such laws would greatly impede practically all business; in practice, they are only erratically enforced. The specter of having such laws suddenly brought down upon a business provides incentive to stay in the good graces of political officials. Troublesome rivals who have overstepped their bounds can have the laws suddenly enforced against them, leading to fines or even jail time. Even in high-income democracies with well-established legal systems and freedom of the press a larger state is associated with more political corruption.[6]
The term crony capitalism was initially applied to states involved in the 1997 Asian financial crisis such as Thailand and Indonesia. In these cases, the term was used to point out how family members of the ruling leaders become extremely wealthy with no non-political justification.[citation needed] Southeast Asian nations still score very poorly in rankings measuring this. Hong Kong,[7] and Malaysia[8] are perhaps most noted for this, and the term has also been applied to the system of oligarchs in Russia.[9][10] Other states to which the term has been applied include India,[11] in particular, the system after the 1990s liberalization whereby land and other resources were given at throwaway prices in the name of public private partnerships, the more recent coal-gate scam and cheap allocation of land and resources to Adani SEZ under the Congress and BJP governments.[12]
Similar references to crony capitalism have been made to other countries such as Argentina[13] and Greece.[14] Wu Jinglian, one of China’s leading economists[15] and a longtime advocate of its transition to free markets, says that it faces two starkly contrasting futures: a market economy under the rule of law or crony capitalism.[16]
Many prosperous nations have also had varying amounts of cronyism throughout their history including the United Kingdom, especially in the 1600s and 1700s, United States,[2][17] and Japan.
Crony capitalism index[edit]
The Economist benchmarks countries based on a “crony-capitalism index” calculated via how much economic activity occurs in industries prone to cronyism. Its 2014 Crony Capitalism Index ranking listed Hong Kong, Russia and Malaysia in the top 3 spots.[10]
In finance[edit]
Crony capitalism in finance was found in the Second Bank of the United States. It was a private company, but its largest stockholder was the federal government which owned 20%. It was an early bank regulator and grew to be one being the most powerful organizations in the country due largely to being the depository of the government’s revenue.[18]
The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act in 1999 completely removed Glass-Steagall’s separation between commercial banks and investment banks. After this repeal, commercial banks, investment banks, and insurance companies combined their lobbying efforts. Critics claim this was instrumental in the passage of the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005.[19]
In sections of an economy[edit]
The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. (November 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
More direct government involvement in a specific sector can also lead to specific areas of crony capitalism, even if the economy as a whole may be competitive. This is most common in natural resource sectors through the granting of mining or drilling concessions, but it is also possible through a process known as regulatory capture where the government agencies in charge of regulating an industry come to be controlled by that industry. Governments will often, in good faith, establish government agencies to regulate an industry. However, the members of an industry have a very strong interest in the actions of that regulatory body, while the rest of the citizenry are only lightly affected. As a result, it is not uncommon for current industry players to gain control of the “watchdog” and to use it against competitors. This typically takes the form of making it very expensive for a new entrant to enter the market. An 1824 landmark U.S. Supreme Court ruling overturned a New York State-granted monopoly (“a veritable model of state munificence” facilitated by one of the Founding Fathers, Robert R. Livingston) for the then-revolutionary technology of steamboats.[20] Leveraging the Supreme Court’s establishment of Congressional supremacy over commerce, the Interstate Commerce Commission was established in 1887 with the intent of regulating railroad “robber barons”. President Grover Cleveland appointed Thomas M. Cooley, a railroad ally, as its first chairman and a permit system was used to deny access to new entrants and legalize price fixing.[21]
The defense industry in the United States is often described as an example of crony capitalism in an industry. Connections with the Pentagon and lobbyists in Washington are described by critics as more important than actual competition, due to the political and secretive nature of defense contracts. In the Airbus-Boeing WTO dispute, Airbus (which receives outright subsidies from European governments) has stated Boeing receives similar subsidies, which are hidden as inefficient defense contracts.[22] Other American defense companies were put under scrutiny for no-bid contracts for Iraq war and Hurricane Katrina related contracts purportedly due to having cronies in the Bush administration.[23]
Gerald P. O’Driscoll, former vice president at the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, stated that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac became examples of crony capitalism. Government backing let Fannie and Freddie dominate mortgage underwriting. “The politicians created the mortgage giants, which then returned some of the profits to the pols—sometimes directly, as campaign funds; sometimes as “contributions” to favored constituents.”[24]
In developing economies[edit]
In its worst form, crony capitalism can devolve into simple corruption, where any pretense of a free market is dispensed with. Bribes to government officials are considered de rigueur and tax evasion is common; this is seen in many parts of Africa, for instance. This is sometimes called plutocracy (rule by wealth) or kleptocracy (rule by theft).
Corrupt governments may favor one set of business owners who have close ties to the government over others. This may also be done with racial, religious, or ethnic favoritism; for instance, Alawites in Syria have a disproportionate share of power in the government and business there. (President Assad is an Alawite.[25]) This can be explained by considering personal relationships as a social network. As government and business leaders try to accomplish various things, they naturally turn to other powerful people for support in their endeavors. These people form hubs in the network. In a developing country those hubs may be very few, thus concentrating economic and political power in a small interlocking group.
Normally, this will be untenable to maintain in business; new entrants will affect the market. However, if business and government are entwined, then the government can maintain the small-hub network.
Raymond Vernon, specialist in economics and international affairs,[26] wrote that the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, because they were the first to successfully limit the power of veto groups (typically cronies of those with power in government) to block innovations.[27] “Unlike most other national environments, the British environment of the early 19th century contained relatively few threats to those who improved and applied existing inventions, whether from business competitors, labor, or the government itself. In other European countries, by contrast, the merchant guilds … were a pervasive source of veto for many centuries. This power was typically bestowed upon them by government”. For example, a Russian inventor produced a steam engine in 1766 and disappeared without a trace.[citation needed] “[A] steam powered horseless carriage produced in France in 1769 was officially suppressed.” James Watt began experimenting with steam in 1763, got a patent in 1769, and began commercial production in 1775.[28]
Raghuram Rajan, former governor of the Reserve Bank of India, has said “One of the greatest dangers to the growth of developing countries is the middle income trap, where crony capitalism creates oligarchies that slow down growth. If the debate during the elections is any pointer, this is a very real concern of the public in India today.”[29] Tavleen Singh, columnist for The Indian Express has disagreed. According to her, India’s corporate success is not a product of crony capitalism, but because India is no longer under the influence of crony socialism.[30]
Political viewpoints[edit]
This article or section may contain misleading parts. Please help clarify this article according to any suggestions provided on the talk page. (May 2016)
While the problem is generally accepted across the political spectrum, ideology shades the view of the problem’s causes and therefore its solutions. Political views mostly fall into two camps which might be called the socialist and capitalist critique. The socialist position is that broadly democratic government must regulate economic, or wealthy, interests in order to restrict monopoly. The capitalist position is that “natural monopolies” are rare, therefore governmental regulations generally abet established wealthy interests by restricting competition.[31]
Socialist critique[edit]
Critics of crony capitalism including socialists and anti-capitalists often assert that crony capitalism is the inevitable result of any strictly capitalist system. Jane Jacobs described it as a natural consequence of collusion between those managing power and trade, while Noam Chomsky has argued that the word “crony” is superfluous when describing capitalism.[32] Since businesses make money and money leads to political power, business will inevitably use their power to influence governments. Much of the impetus behind campaign finance reform in the United States and in other countries is an attempt to prevent economic power being used to take political power.
Ravi Batra argues that “all official economic measures adopted since 1981…have devastated the middle class” and that the Occupy Wall Street movement should push for their repeal and thus end the influence of the super wealthy in the political process, which he considers a manifestation of crony capitalism.[33]
Socialist economists, such as Robin Hahnel, have criticized the term as an ideologically motivated attempt to cast what is in their view the fundamental problems of capitalism as avoidable irregularities.[34] Socialist economists dismiss the term as an apologetic for failures of neoliberal policy and, more fundamentally, their perception of the weaknesses of market allocation.
Capitalist critique[edit]
Supporters of capitalism generally oppose crony capitalism as well, and consider it an aberration brought on by governmental favors incompatible with free market.[35][36] In this view, crony capitalism is the result of an excess of socialist-style interference in the market, which inherently will result in a toxic combination of corporations and government officials running the sector of the economy. Some advocates prefer to equate this problem with terms such as “corporatism, a modern form of mercantilism”[37] to emphasize that the only way to run a profitable business in such a system is to have help from corrupt government officials.
Even if the initial regulation was well-intentioned (to curb actual abuses), and even if the initial lobbying by corporations was well-intentioned (to reduce illogical regulations), the mixture of business and government stifle competition,[38] a collusive result called regulatory capture. Burton W. Folsom, Jr. distinguishes those that engage in crony capitalism—designated by him “political entrepreneurs”—from those who compete in the marketplace without special aid from government, whom he calls “market entrepreneurs”. The market entrepreneurs, such as Hill, Vanderbilt, and Rockefeller, succeeded by producing a quality product at a competitive price. The political entrepreneurs, for example, Edward Collins in steamships and the leaders of the Union Pacific Railroad in railroads, were men who used the power of government to succeed. They tried to gain subsidies or in some way use government to stop competitors.[39]
See also[edit]
Corporatocracy
Government failure
Government-owned corporation
Inverted totalitarianism
Iron triangle (US politics)
Licence Raj (concept in Indian political-economics)
Patrimonialism
Political family
Political machine
Regulatory capture
Rent-seeking
Stamocap
Supercapitalism
Zhao family
References[edit]
Vernon, Raymond (1989), “Technological Development”, EDI Seminar Paper, 39, ISBN 978-0821311622
Notes[edit]
Jump up
^ Helen Hughes (Spring 1999). “Crony Capitalism and the East Asian Currency and Financial ‘Crises’”. Policy [1]. Retrieved 2012-07-22. Japan’s dismal performance in the 1990s and the East Asian collapses of 1997 indicate that dirigisme can only boost economies in the short run and at high cost. It breaks down in the long run (Lindsey and Lukas 1998). External link in |magazine= (help)
^
Jump up to:
a b c Kristof, Nicholas (March 27, 2014). “A Nation of Takers?”. New York Times. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
Jump up
^ The Discovery that Business Corrupts Politics: A Reappraisal of the Origins of Progressivism, by McCormick, Richard. 1981. The American Historical Review, Vol. 86, No. 2 (Apr. 1981), pp. 247–74.
Jump up
^ Kang, David C. (2002). Crony Capitalism: Corruption and Development in South Korea and the Philippines (PDF). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00408-4. Focused only on explaining successful outcomes, the conventional model provided no analytic way to explain the 1997 crisis. Countries previously regarded as miracles now were nothing more than havens for crony capitalists (p. 3)
Jump up
^ “Uber vs. Washington, D.C.: This Is Insane”. July 10, 2012. Retrieved July 11, 2012. a fight over a new competitor to the District’s (often horrible) taxi service offers something I haven’t seen in a while. Not routine retail-level corruption, nor skillful top-level favor trading, but instead what appears to be a blatant attempt to legislate favors for one set of interests by hamstringing another.
Jump up
^ Hamilton, Alexander (2013), Small is beautiful, at least in high-income democracies: the distribution of policy-making responsibility, electoral accountability, and incentives for rent extraction [2], World Bank.
Jump up
^ Vines, Stephen (1 April 2014). “Why Hong Kong’s latest No 1 ranking was greeted with silence”. South China Morning Post. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
Jump up
^ http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1213&context=facultyworkingpapers
Jump up
^ “Having it both ways”. The Economist. May 20, 2004.
^
Jump up to:
a b “The countries where politically connected businessmen are most likely to prosper”. The Economist. 15 March 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
Jump up
^ “Govt Patronises Crony Capitalism Again”. June 19, 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
Jump up
^ Khetan, Ashish (12 February 2017). “Modi’s Own Record of ‘Raincoat Bathing’ Is Worth Recalling”. The Wire. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
Jump up
^ “Peronism and its perils”. The Economist. June 3, 2004.
Jump up
^ “The Scourge of Crony Capitalism”. June 20, 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
Jump up
^ “Keeping an eye on business”. The Economist. May 27, 2004.
Jump up
^ Jinglian, Wu (June 2006). “The road ahead for capitalism in China”. The McKinsey Quarterly.
Jump up
^ “Planet Plutocrat: The countries where politically connected businessmen are most likely to prosper”. The Economist. March 15, 2014.
Jump up
^ Zingales, Luigi (2012). A Capitalism for the People: Recapturing the Lost Genius of American Prosperity. New York: Basic Books. p. 50.
Jump up
^ Zingales, Luigi (2012). A Capitalism for the People: Recapturing the Lost Genius of American Prosperity. New York: Basic Books. pp. 50–52.
Jump up
^ Styles, T.J. The First Tycoon: The Epic Life of Cornelius Vanderbilt. ISBN 978-0-375-41542-5. Property requirements for suffrage under New York’s constitution of 1777 hardened the culture of rank into law. Two distinct levels of wealth were required to vote, one for state assembly, and a second and higher level for the state senators and governor… [this suffrage scheme fostered] mercantilism, which in the state empowered private parties to carry out activities thought to serve the public interest. The standard reward for such an undertaking was a monopoly—just what Chancellor Livingston sought when he offered to meet a most pressing public need, the need for steamboats…Livingston maneuvered…the monopoly through the legislature (“a veritable model of state munificence,” as legal scholar Maurice G. Baxter writes—that gave him the right to seize steamboats the entered New York waters from other states. But Livingston had overreached. With so many inventors and investors interested in the steamboat, the monopoly on served to limit its adoption. The new technology was simply too important for the monopoly to remain unchallenged. [pp. 39–42]
Jump up
^ Lee, Timothy (August 3, 2006). “Entangling the Web”. The New York Times. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
Jump up
^ “Pulling Boeing Out of a Tailspin”. Business Week. December 15, 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2011. A national treasure, once No. 1 in commercial aviation, Boeing has become a risk-averse company stumbling to compete in the marketplace and dependent on political connections and chicanery to get government contracts. Boeing needs a strong board and a rejuvenated corporate culture based on innovation and competitiveness, not crony capitalism.
Jump up
^ Dreier, Peter (March 2006). “Katrina and Power in America”. Occidental College. Retrieved July 22, 2012. Three companies—the Shaw Group, Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR, a subsidiary of Haliburton, whose former CEO is Vice President Dick Cheney), and Boh Brothers Construction of New Orleans—quickly scooped up no-bid ACE contracts to perform the restoration. Bechtel and Fluor (also with close GOP ties) also reaped huge contracts. The Department of Defense has been criticized for awarding Iraq reconstruction contracts to Haliburton and Bechtel without competition (Broder 2005)
Jump up
^ O’Driscoll Jr, Gerald P. (September 9, 2008). “Fannie/Freddie Bailout Baloney”. New York Post.
Jump up
^ Syrian Businessman Becomes Magnet for Anger and Dissent “Like Mr. Ezz in Egypt, he has become a symbol of how economic reforms turned crony socialism into crony capitalism, making the poor poorer and the connected rich fantastically wealthier.”
Jump up
^ “Raymond Vernon Dies at 85”. The Harvard University Gazette. President and Fellows of Harvard College. September 23, 1999. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
Jump up
^ Vernon (1989)
Jump up
^ Vernon (1989, p. 8); see also Watt steam engine and James Watt
Jump up
^ “Crony capitalism a big threat to countries like India, RBI chief Raghuram Rajan says”. Times of India. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
Jump up
^ http://archive.indianexpress.com/news/no-crony-capitalism-in-india/821341/
Jump up
^ http://gothamist.com/2014/11/29/uber_driving_down_price_of_taxi_med.php
Jump up
^ “Black Faces in Limousines:” A Conversation with Noam Chomsky from Chomsky.info accessed on June 5, 2009
Jump up
^ Batra, Ravi (11 October 2011). “The Occupy Wall Street Movement and the Coming Demise of Crony Capitalism”. Truthout. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
Jump up
^ Robin Hahnel. “Let’s Review”. IMF officials Michel Camdessus and Stanley Fischer were quick to explain that the afflicted economies had only themselves to blame. Crony capitalism, lack of transparency, accounting procedures not up to international standards, and weak-kneed politicians too quick to spend and too afraid to tax were the problems according to IMF and US Treasury Department officials. The fact that the afflicted economies had been held up as paragons of virtue and IMF/World Bank success stories only a year before, the fact that neoliberalism’s only success story had been the Newly Industrialized Countries (NIC’s) who were now in the tank, and the fact that the IMF and Treasury department story just didn’t fit the facts since the afflicted economies were no more rife with crony capitalism, lack of transparency, and weak-willed politicians than dozens of other economies untouched by the Asian financial crisis, simply did not matter.
Jump up
^ Nicholas D. Kristof (Oct 26, 2011). “Crony Capitalism Comes Home”. The New York Times. Retrieved Nov 27, 2011. some financiers have chosen to live in a government-backed featherbed. Their platform seems to be socialism for tycoons and capitalism for the rest of us…featherbedding by both unions and tycoons…are impediments to a well-functioning market economy.
Jump up
^ John Stossel (2010). “Let’s Take the “Crony” Out of “Crony Capitalism””. Archived from the original on May 13, 2012. Retrieved Nov 26, 2011. The truth is that we don’t have a free market—government regulation and management are pervasive—so it’s misleading to say that “capitalism” caused today’s problems. The free market is innocent. But it’s fair to say that crony capitalism created the economic mess.
Jump up
^ Ben Shapiro (2011). “There’s No Such Thing as “Crony Capitalism””. Retrieved Nov 26, 2011. This “crony capitalism,” Sarah Palin said, is “not the capitalism of free men and free markets.” In general, she’s right. But…her terminology…is dead wrong. The fact is that there is no such thing as “crony capitalism.” In reality, it is corporatism, a modern form of mercantilism. Corporatism is based on the notion that industries comprise the economy like body parts comprise the body—they must work in concert with one another, and they must take central direction.
Jump up
^ John Stossel (2010). “Let’s Take the “Crony” Out of “Crony Capitalism””. Retrieved Nov 26, 2011. Which are more likely to be hampered by vigorous regulatory standards: entrenched corporations with their overstaffed legal and accounting departments or small startups trying to get off the ground? Regulation can kill competition—and incumbents like it that way.
Jump up
^ Folsom, Burton. “Myth of the Robber Barons”. Retrieved Nov 28, 2011. The author, Burton Folsom, divides the entrepreneurs into two groups: market entrepreneurs and political entrepreneurs.
Further reading[edit]
Wei, Shang-Jin (2001). “Domestic Crony Capitalism and International Fickle Capital: Is There a Connection?”. International Finance. 4: 15–45. doi:10.1111/1468-2362.00064.
Kang, David C. (2003). “Transaction Costs and Crony Capitalism in East Asia”. Comparative Politics. 35 (4): 439–58. JSTOR 4150189. doi:10.2307/4150189.
Ip, Po-Keung (2007). “Corporate Social Responsibility and Crony Capitalism in Taiwan”. Journal of Business Ethics. 79: 167–77. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9385-5.
Hughes, Sallie; Lawson, Chappell H. (2004). “Propaganda and Crony Capitalism: Partisan Bias in Mexican Television News”. Latin American Research Review. 39 (3): 81–105. JSTOR 1555469. doi:10.1353/lar.2004.0050.
Shah, Ajay (7 September 2012). “Indian capitalism is not doomed”. Ajay Shah’s Blog.
Singh, Ajit; Zammit, Ann (2006). “Corporate Governance, Crony Capitalism and Economic Crises: Should the US business model replace the Asian way of ‘doing business’?”. Corporate Governance: an International Review. 14 (4): 220–33. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8683.2006.00504.x.
Johnson, Chalmers (1998). “Economic crisis in East Asia: The clash of capitalisms”. Cambridge Journal of Economics. 22 (6): 653–61. doi:10.1093/cje/22.6.653.
Peev, Evgeni (2002). “Ownership and Control Structures in Transition to ‘Crony’ Capitalism: The Case of Bulgaria”. Eastern European Economics. 40 (5): 73–91. JSTOR 4380313.
Enderwick, Peter (2005). “What’s Bad About Crony Capitalism?”. Asian Business & Management. 4 (2): 117–32. doi:10.1057/palgrave.abm.9200126.
Rosas, Guillermo (2006). “Bagehot or Bailout? An Analysis of Government Responses to Banking Crises”. American Journal of Political Science. 50: 175–91. JSTOR 3694264. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5907.2006.00177.x.
Kahn, J. S.; Formosa, F. (2002). “The Problem of ‘Crony Capitalism’: Modernity and the Encounter with the Perverse”. Thesis Eleven. 69: 47–66. doi:10.1177/0725513602069001004.
Davis, Gerald F. (2003). “American cronyism: How executive networks inflated the corporate bubble”. Contexts. 2 (3): 34–40. doi:10.1525/ctx.2003.2.3.34.
Vaugirard, Victor (2005). “Crony Capitalism and Sovereign Default”. Open Economies Review. 16: 77–99. doi:10.1007/s11079-005-5333-0.
James, Harold (2008). “Family Values or Crony Capitalism?”. Capitalism and Society. 3. doi:10.2202/1932-0213.1031.
Khatri, Naresh; Tsang, Eric W K; Begley, Thomas M (2005). “Cronyism: A cross-cultural analysis”. Journal of International Business Studies. 37: 61–75. JSTOR 3875215. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400171.
Khatri, Naresh (2013). Anatomy of Indian Brand of Crony Capitalism. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2335201.
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/19626/1/WP0802.pdf
External links[edit]
New York Times, “The Global Cost of Crony Capitalism”
New York Times, “Vladivostok Journal: Out of Russia’s Gangland, and Into Cafe Society.”
Joseph Stiglitz, “Crony capitalism American-style”.
William Anderson, The Mises Institute, “Myths About Enron”
Crony capitalism: The actors of change towards neoliberalism in Chile, by Patricio Imbert and Patricio Morales
Will Africa Finally Take Off? Becker
Crony Chronicles – The Cronyism Resource
Categories: CapitalismPolitical corruptionPolitical terminologyPublic choice theoryBribery
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