BETWEEN US

Between Us (2012 film)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Between Us

Directed by
Dan Mirvish
Produced by
Hans C. Ritter, Mike S. Ryan, Dan Mirvish
Written by
Joe Hortua & Dan Mirvish, based on the play by Joe Hortua
Starring
Taye Diggs
Melissa George
David Harbour
Julia Stiles
Music by
Tobias Enhus & H. Scott Salinas
Cinematography
Nancy Schreiber, ASC
Edited by
Dean Gonzalez
Distributed by
Monterey Media (US)
Release date
September 13, 2012 (Oldenburg International Film Festival)
Running time
90 minutes
Country
United States
Language
English
Budget
$40,000[1]
Between Us is a 2012 American drama film directed by Dan Mirvish, based on the play by Joe Hortua, with a screenplay adaptation by Hortua and Mirvish. It stars Taye Diggs, Melissa George, David Harbour, and Julia Stiles.[2]

Contents  [hide] 
1
Cast
2
Release
2.1
Festivals
3
Reception
4
References
5
External links

Cast[edit]
Taye Diggs as Carlo
Melissa George as Sharyl
David Harbour as Joel
Julia Stiles as Grace
Mara New as Bridesmaid
Julia Cho as Guest
Claudio Dabed as The Brazilian
Release[edit]
The film had its world premiere at the Oldenburg International Film Festival. monterey media inc. acquired all U.S. and Canadian rights to the film in April 2013 and plans on a summer theatrical release. [3] The US theatrical began on June 21st, 2013 in Los Angeles at the Downtown Independent Theater. [4] The US theatrical began on June 21st, 2013 in Los Angeles at the Downtown Independent Theater. [5]

Festivals[edit]
‘Between Us’ won the grand jury prize at the 2012 Bahamas International Film Festival,[6] and was the Closing Night Film at the 50th Annual Gijón International Film Festival in Spain.[7]
‘Between Us’ was selected to screen at the following film festivals:
2012 Bahamas International Film Festival[8]
2012 Hamptons International Film Festival[9]
2012 Slamdance Film Festival[10]
2012 Whistler Film Festival.[11]
2012 Atlanta Film Festival [12]
2012 Ashland Independent Film Festival [13]
2012 Indie Memphis Film Festival [14]
2013 Dallas International Film Festival [15]
2013 Sarasota Film Festival [16]
Reception[edit]
Richard Rushfield of BuzzFeed described the film as “a powerful, brilliantly acted character piece about two couples who meet over the course of several years to serially rip out the loose threads of their relationships. The four-person cast of Julia Stiles, Taye Diggs, Melissa George, and David Harbour (Elliot of The Newsroom) give the sense of breathing in their parts so deeply that they are at every move haunted by their characters’ secrets and torn by rival pulls of love and contempt toward the other characters. No corner of intimacy or secrets is left unexposed in the film that is at once hilarious and devastating.”[17]
References[edit]
Jump up
^ Dan Mirvish (2013-07-20). “13 Ways to Cast A-List Actors in Microbudget Films”. Filmmaker Magazine. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
Jump up
^ Greg Ptacek (2013-01-22). “Julia Stiles Delivers Searing Performance in Dan Mirvish’s “Between Us””. Monsters and Critics. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
Jump up
^ “Slamdance Co-Founder’s Ensemble Comedy ‘Between Us’ Acquired by Monterey Media”. indiewire.com. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
Jump up
^ “Now Playing June 21”. downtownindependent.com. Retrieved 2013-06-21.
Jump up
^ “Now Playing June 21”. downtownindependent.com. Retrieved 2013-06-21.
Jump up
^ “Interview of the BIFF Winner: Dan Mirvish”. Filmfestivals.com. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
Jump up
^ “Dan Mirvish le da un tono oscuro de comedia a la obra ‘Between Us'”. ElCommercio.es. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
Jump up
^ “Interview of the BIFF Winner: Dan Mirvish”. Filmfestivals.com. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
Jump up
^ “20th anniversary recap”. Filmfestivals.com. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
Jump up
^ “Slamdance Co-Founder’s Ensemble Comedy ‘Between Us’ Acquired by Monterey Media”. indiewire.com. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
Jump up
^ “Between Us” (IMDB Movie page). Retrieved 2013-02-19.
Jump up
^ “Between Us Narrative Feature”. atlantafilmfestival.com. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
Jump up
^ “Between Us Narrative Feature”. ashlandfilm.org. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
Jump up
^ “Between Us Narrative Feature”. blogs.commercialappeal.com. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
Jump up
^ “2013 Dallas International Film Festival: Between Us”. dallas.culturemap.com. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
Jump up
^ “How to Plan Your SARASOTA FILM FESTIVAL Weekend!”. sarasotafilmfestival.com. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
Jump up
^ Richard Rushfield (2013-01-13). “A Different Kind Of Festival Premiere At Slamdance”. Buzzfeed. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
External links[edit]
Official website
Between Us at the Internet Movie Database
Between Us at Rotten Tomatoes
Categories: 2012 filmsEnglish-language filmsAmerican independent films2010s drama filmsAmerican filmsFilms based on plays

Navigation menu
Not logged in
Talk
Contributions
Create account
Log in
Article
Talk
Read
Edit
View history
Search

Main page
Contents
Featured content
Current events
Random article
Donate to Wikipedia
Wikipedia store
Interaction
Help
About Wikipedia
Community portal
Recent changes
Contact page
Tools
What links here
Related changes
Upload file
Special pages
Permanent link
Page information
Wikidata item
Cite this page
Print/export
Create a book
Download as PDF
Printable version

Languages

Add links
This page was last modified on 13 June 2016, at 03:27.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
Privacy policy
About Wikipedia
Disclaimers
Contact Wikipedia
Developers
Cookie statement
Mobile view

Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on BETWEEN US

CHLOE

Chloe (film)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Chloe

US release poster
Directed by
Atom Egoyan
Produced by
Jason Reitman
Ivan Reitman
Tom Pollock
Jennifer Weiss
Simone Urdl
Screenplay by
Erin Cressida Wilson
Based on
Nathalie…
by Anne Fontaine
Starring
Julianne Moore
Liam Neeson
Amanda Seyfried
Music by
Mychael Danna
Cinematography
Paul Sarossy
Edited by
Susan Shipton
Production
company
The Montecito Picture Company
StudioCanal[1]
Distributed by
Sony Pictures Classics (USA theatrical)
E1 Entertainment (Canada)
StudioCanal (France)
Release date
September 13, 2009 (TIFF)
March 26, 2010 (United States)
Running time
96 minutes
Country
Canada
France
Language
English
Budget
$12-14 million[2]
Box office
$11,702,642 (worldwide)[3]
Chloe is a 2009 erotic thriller film directed by Atom Egoyan, a remake of the 2003 French film Nathalie…. It stars Julianne Moore, Liam Neeson, and Amanda Seyfried in the title role. Its screenplay was written by Erin Cressida Wilson, based on the earlier French film, written by Anne Fontaine.
Despite its mixed critical reception,[4] Chloe made more money than any of Atom Egoyan’s previous films.[5]

Contents  [hide] 
1
Plot
2
Cast
3
Production
4
Financing and distribution
4.1
Home media
5
Critical reception
6
References
7
External links

Plot[edit]
In a voice-over, Chloe discusses her business as a call girl. Catherine is a gynecologist and her husband David is a college professor. Catherine suspects David of having an affair after she sees a cell-phone picture of him with a female student.
Catherine stops by the hotel bar where Chloe waits for clients, telling Chloe that she wants to hire her to test David’s loyalty. Chloe later tells Catherine that David asked her if he could kiss her, which he did. Catherine is angered but insists that Chloe meet with David again.
Over the next few days, Catherine and Chloe meet multiple times, and Chloe describes in explicit detail her encounters with David, which arouses Catherine during one meeting; Chloe kisses Catherine, and Catherine, surprised by this, abruptly leaves. Later, when meeting with David at a get-together, she is taken aback by his awareness of the scent of her lotion; it is the same lotion that Chloe wears. Upset by this, Catherine leaves and meets with Chloe at a hotel; she asks Chloe to show her how David touches her, then has sex with her.
When Catherine arrives home later than usual, David asks her if she has been unfaithful. Catherine tells him she thinks he has been unfaithful as well, and the two argue, stopping after being interrupted by their son, Michael.
Catherine meets with Chloe and calls off their relationship but later asks her to meet her at a coffee house frequented by David. While there, she demands that David admit that he is having an affair. Chloe walks in, and David does not recognize her. Chloe leaves quickly, and Catherine realizes that Chloe made up her encounters with David.
David admits that he has fantasized about other women, and expects Catherine to make a similar admission. When she does not, David becomes agitated. Catherine then confesses her sexual encounter with Chloe. She apologizes, saying that she felt she became invisible to David as she aged, while David became more attractive to her, and that this got in the way of their sex life. The couple reconciles.
Chloe goes to Catherine and David’s house and has sex with Michael in their bed. Catherine interrupts them. Chloe tells Catherine that she is in love with her. She threatens to hurt Catherine with her hair pin.
Catherine asks Chloe what she wants. Chloe requests a kiss, and Catherine complies. Michael sees, startling Catherine and causing her to push Chloe into the bedroom window. Chloe manages to grab hold of the frame, but she intentionally lets go and falls to her death. Sometime later, Catherine attends Michael’s graduation party, and wears Chloe’s hairpin in her hair.
Cast[edit]
Julianne Moore as Dr. Catherine Stewart
Liam Neeson as David Stewart
Amanda Seyfried as Chloe Sweeney
Max Thieriot as Michael Stewart
R. H. Thomson as Frank
Nina Dobrev as Anna
Meghan Heffern as Miranda
Natalie Lisinska as Eliza
Laura DeCarteret as Alicia
Mishu Vellani as Julie
Production[edit]
The film was financed solely in France. The film was shot in Toronto. Several famous local landmarks can be seen, such as Allan Gardens, Cafe Diplomatico, The Rivoli, the Windsor Arms Hotel, the Royal York Hotel, the Royal Ontario Museum, The Royal Conservatory of Music, the CN Tower, the Art Gallery of Ontario and the Ontario College of Art.[6]
Producer, Jason Reitman, helped persuade Amanda Seyfried to star in this film.[7] Seyfried accepted the role of Chloe after a friend of hers withdrew from consideration due to discomfort with the nudity.[8] Julianne Moore described Seyfried as a “very dependable” acting partner and claimed that they were largely comfortable with the intimacy in the film. In describing her view of Catherine’s relationship with Chloe, Moore noted “an emotional quality to their intimacy that has to do with their conversation and their basic receptivity to one another. Now what they turn into personally obviously is very different. They are having completely subjective experiences, but that doesn’t mean [they’re] not incredibly receptive to one another and it clearly creates something in-between them. And that’s what love and sex and intimacy and all that is. Someone who is listening to you, hearing you, there for you, that’s the person you end up having a relationship with, sexual or just emotional or whatever. I don’t know if that has to do with gender necessarily”.[9]
Liam Neeson’s wife, Natasha Richardson, had a skiing accident during filming. Neeson decided to leave the set to take care of his wife, who died from her injury a few days later. The filmmakers re-arranged the shooting schedule accordingly for Neeson’s absence.[1] Just a few days after his wife’s death, Neeson returned to the set and filmed the remainder of his scenes in two days.[10] Canadian indie rock band Raised by Swans has two songs featured in the movie and the band is mentioned several times by Chloe.
Anne Fontaine (the writer/director of Nathalie…) said that she was interested in Egoyan’s take on it. Fontaine also said that she was not happy with Nathalie… because the two lead actresses of the film objected to her original intention for a lesbian relationship to develop between their characters.[11]
Financing and distribution[edit]
StudioCanal fully financed Chloe, which had already made its $20 million budget back via international pre-sales.[12][13] In 2009, the film received award nominations from London Film Festival, San Sebastián International Film Festival, and Toronto International Film Festival under the category of Film Presented.[14]
Sony Pictures Worldwide Acquisitions Group paid a low seven-figure sum to acquire the United States distribution rights of Chloe,[12][15] and the group opened this film in limited theatrical release in the United States on March 26, 2010 through Sony Pictures Classics.[16] In the United States, this film grossed $3 million theatrically and became one of the higher-grossing specialty films in 2010[17] (according to Variety, “$3 million is the new $10 million” for specialty films’ box office in 2010[18]).
In the wake of Chloe, Egoyan had since received many scripts of erotic thrillers.[19] Amanda Seyfried’s performance in this film also helped her to gain industry acclaim and become considered for more roles.[20]
Home media[edit]
Chloe was released in the United States on July 13, 2010 in both DVD and Blu-ray Disc. The disc includes an audio commentary, making-of featurette, and deleted scenes.
Several months following the DVD/Blu-ray release of Chloe, Atom Egoyan said that Chloe had made more money than any of his previous films.[5]
Critical reception[edit]
The film opened in 350 theaters to mixed reviews; on review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, Chloe holds a 51% approval rating based on 151 reviews, with a rating average of 5.8/10. The site’s consensus is that “Despite its promising pedigree and a titillating premise, Chloe ultimately fails to deliver the heat — or the thrills — expected of a sexual thriller.”[21] Metacritic, which assigns a normalized score from major reviewers, gave the film a 48 out of 100, based on 33 reviews, indicating “Mixed or average reviews.”[4]
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film 3.5 out of 4 stars,[22] while Elizabeth Weitzman of New York Daily News gave the film 1 out of 5 stars.
References[edit]
^
Jump up to:
a b Onstad, Katrina (2009-08-30). “Adapting to Life’s Change, on Screen and Off”. The New York Times.
Jump up
^ http://zamm.com/articles/movie-mania/q-and-a/q-and-a-with-director-atom-egoyan.html
Jump up
^ “Chloe (2010)”. Box Office Mojo. 2010-07-15. Retrieved 2012-02-03.
^
Jump up to:
a b “Chloe Reviews, Ratings, Credits”. Metacritic. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
^
Jump up to:
a b Pevere, Geoff (2010-12-07). “The Digital Revolution: Part 1”. The Star. Toronto.
Jump up
^ “Official website of Chloe”. Retrieved 2010-12-03.
Jump up
^ Seguin, Denis (2009-09-25). “The great entertainer | Features | Screen”. Screendaily.com. Retrieved 2010-10-23.
Jump up
^ Wolf, Jeanne (2010-03-22). “Amanda Seyfried”. Parade.com. Retrieved 2015-07-12.
Jump up
^ Passafuime, Rocco (2010-03-29). “Julianne Moore Interview for Chloe”. thecinemasource.com. Retrieved 2015-07-12.
Jump up
^ CA. “Director Atom Egoyan praises grieving Liam Neesons professionalism – Entertainment – Arts”. The Journal Pioneer. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
Jump up
^ “Egoyan’s Chloe a reinvention of sexy French drama”. Cbc.ca. 2009-09-15. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
^
Jump up to:
a b Horowitz, Lisa (2009-10-09). “Sony Picks Up Egoyan’s ‘Chloe'”. TheWrap.com. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
Jump up
^ Canada (2009-10-09). “Egoyan closes U.S. deal for Chloe”. Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
Jump up
^ “Chloe (2009) Awards”. Moviefone. 2010-03-26. Retrieved 2010-12-02.
Jump up
^ “Sony seduced by ‘Chloe’ – Entertainment News, Film News, Media”. Variety. 2009-10-08. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
Jump up
^ “CHLOE | a film by Atom Egoyan”. Sonyclassics.com. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
Jump up
^ http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?page=weekend&id=chloe.htm
Jump up
^ Stewart, Andrew (2010-04-24). “Specialty pics face reduced expectations”. Variety.
Jump up
^ “Atom Egoyan sifts through sex thriller scripts in wake of ‘Chloe’ – CTV News, Shows and Sports – Canadian Television”. CP24. Retrieved 2010-10-23.
Jump up
^ Barshad, Amos. “Star Market: Can Amanda Seyfried Live Out a Hollywood Fairy Tale? – Vulture”. Nymag.com. Retrieved 2012-02-03.
Jump up
^ “Chloe Movie Reviews, Pictures”. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
Jump up
^ Chloe :: rogerebert.com :: Reviews. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2011-01-06.
External links[edit]
2000s portal LGBT portal Film in the United States portal Canada portal France portal

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Chloe (film)
Official website
Official Trailer on YouTube
Chloe at the Internet Movie Database
Chloe at AllMovie
Chloe at Box Office Mojo
Chloe at Rotten Tomatoes
Chloe at Metacritic
Julianne Moore Chloe – interview.
StudioCanal (fr) Chloe
[show]
vte
Films directed by Atom Egoyan
[show]
vte
Works by Jason Reitman
Categories: 2009 filmsEnglish-language films2000s LGBT-related films2000s erotic films2000s thriller filmsAdultery in filmsCanadian filmsCanadian LGBT-related filmsCanadian thriller filmsErotic romance filmsErotic thriller filmsFilms about sexualityFilms about prostitutionFilms directed by Atom EgoyanFilms set in TorontoFilms shot in TorontoFrench filmsFrench LGBT-related filmsFrench thriller filmsBisexuality-related filmsSony Pictures Classics filmsThe Montecito Picture Company filmsStudioCanal filmsCanadian erotic filmsFrench erotic filmsCanadian independent filmsFrench independent filmsFilms about infidelityRomantic thriller filmsLGBT-related thriller films

Navigation menu
Not logged in
Talk
Contributions
Create account
Log in
Article
Talk
Read
Edit
View history
Search

Main page
Contents
Featured content
Current events
Random article
Donate to Wikipedia
Wikipedia store
Interaction
Help
About Wikipedia
Community portal
Recent changes
Contact page
Tools
What links here
Related changes
Upload file
Special pages
Permanent link
Page information
Wikidata item
Cite this page
Print/export
Create a book
Download as PDF
Printable version
In other projects
Wikiquote

Languages
Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎
Български
Deutsch
Eesti
Español
Euskara
فارسی
Français
Italiano
עברית
Македонски
Nederlands
日本語
Norsk bokmål
Polski
Português
Русский
Simple English
Українська
中文
Edit links
This page was last modified on 24 February 2017, at 06:40.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
Privacy policy
About Wikipedia
Disclaimers
Contact Wikipedia
Developers
Cookie statement
Mobile view

Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on CHLOE

THE INVISIBLE CIRCUS

The Invisible Circus (film)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
The Invisible Circus

Theatrical release poster
Directed by
Adam Brooks
Produced by
Julia Chasman
Nick Wechsler
Screenplay by
Adam Brooks
Based on
The Invisible Circus
by Jennifer Egan
Starring
Cameron Diaz
Jordana Brewster
Christopher Eccleston
Music by
Nick Laird-Clowes
Cinematography
Henry Braham
Edited by
Elizabeth Kling
Production
company
Fine Line Features
Distributed by
Fine Line Features
Release date
January 11, 2001 (Sundance)
February 2, 2001 (USA)
Running time
93 minutes
Country
United States
Language
English
Box office
$77,578
The Invisible Circus is a 2001 American drama film written and directed by Adam Brooks and starring Cameron Diaz, Jordana Brewster, and Christopher Eccleston. Based on the 1995 novel The Invisible Circus by Jennifer Egan, the film is about a teenage girl who travels to Europe in 1976 in search of answers to her older sister’s suicide. During her search, she falls in love with her dead sister’s former boyfriend.[1] The film premiered at the Sundance Film Festival on January 11, 2001, and was released in the United States on February 2, 2001.[1]

Contents  [hide] 
1
Plot
2
Cast
3
Reception
4
References
5
External links

Plot[edit]
Phoebe O’Connor’s California dreamin’ days are done. Lost and confused in 1977 post free-love San Francisco, this headstrong flower child (played by Jordana Brewster) decides to unravel the mystery of her sister’s (Cameron Diaz) suicide in Portugal. In her desperate search for answers, Phoebe is forced to face the past, as well as disturbing truths about her own future. She falls in love with her sister’s boyfriend and they travel together to Portugal. She finally discovers the cause of her sister’s death and returns home.
Cast[edit]
Cameron Diaz as Faith O’Connor
Jordana Brewster as Phoebe O’Connor
Christopher Eccleston as Wolf
Blythe Danner as Gail O’Connor
Camilla Belle as Phoebe O’Connor, age 10–12
Patrick Bergin as Gene
Isabelle Pasco as Claire
Moritz Bleibtreu as Eric
Philipp Weissert as Safehouse Leader
Nikola Obermann as Hannah
Robert Getter as American Statesman
Ricky Koole as Nikki
Reception[edit]
The film received negative reviews from critics and holds a 21% rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 61 reviews.
References[edit]
^
Jump up to:
a b Scott, A. O. (February 2, 2001). “Tripping Through Europe On a Quest for Lost Time”. The New York Times. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
External links[edit]
The Invisible Circus at the Internet Movie Database
The Invisible Circus at Rotten Tomatoes
[hide]
vte
Films directed by Adam Brooks

Almost You (1985)Red Riding Hood (1989)The Invisible Circus (2001)Definitely, Maybe (2008)

This 2000s drama film–related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Categories: 2001 filmsEnglish-language films2000s drama filmsAmerican drama filmsFilms based on American novelsFilms directed by Adam BrooksFilms set in PortugalFilms set in San FranciscoFilms set in the 1970sAmerican films2000s drama film stubs

Navigation menu
Not logged in
Talk
Contributions
Create account
Log in
Article
Talk
Read
Edit
View history
Search

Main page
Contents
Featured content
Current events
Random article
Donate to Wikipedia
Wikipedia store
Interaction
Help
About Wikipedia
Community portal
Recent changes
Contact page
Tools
What links here
Related changes
Upload file
Special pages
Permanent link
Page information
Wikidata item
Cite this page
Print/export
Create a book
Download as PDF
Printable version

Languages
Deutsch
Español
Français
한국어
Հայերեն
Íslenska
Italiano
日本語
Português
Русский
Edit links
This page was last modified on 3 March 2017, at 09:58.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
Privacy policy
About Wikipedia
Disclaimers
Contact Wikipedia
Developers
Cookie statement
Mobile view

Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on THE INVISIBLE CIRCUS

EXISTENTIALISM

Existentialism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
“Existential” redirects here. For the logical sense of the term, see Existential quantification. For other uses, see Existence (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Essentialism.

Clockwise from top left: Kierkegaard, Dostoyevsky, Sartre, Nietzsche
Existentialism (/ɛɡzɪˈstɛnʃəlɪzəm/)[1] is a term applied to the work of certain late-19th- and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,[2][3][4] shared the belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual.[5] While the predominant value of existentialist thought is commonly acknowledged to be freedom, its primary virtue is authenticity.[6] In the view of the existentialist, the individual’s starting point is characterized by what has been called “the existential attitude”, or a sense of disorientation, confusion, or dread in the face of an apparently meaningless or absurd world.[7] Many existentialists have also regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophies, in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience.[8][9]
Søren Kierkegaard is generally considered to have been the first existentialist philosopher,[2][10][11] though he did not use the term existentialism.[12] He proposed that each individual—not society or religion—is solely responsible for giving meaning to life and living it passionately and sincerely, or “authentically”.[13][14] Existentialism became popular in the years following World War II, and strongly influenced many disciplines besides philosophy, including theology, drama, art, literature, and psychology.[15]

Contents  [hide] 
1
Definitional issues and background
2
Concepts
2.1
Existence precedes essence
2.2
The Absurd
2.3
Facticity
2.4
Authenticity
2.5
The Other and the Look
2.6
Angst and dread
2.7
Despair
3
Opposition to positivism and rationalism
4
Religion
5
Nihilism
6
Etymology
7
History
7.1
19th century
7.1.1
Kierkegaard and Nietzsche
7.1.2
Dostoyevsky
7.2
Early 20th century
7.3
After the Second World War
8
Influence outside philosophy
8.1
Art
8.1.1
Film and television
8.1.2
Literature
8.1.3
Theatre
8.2
Psychoanalysis and psychotherapy
9
Criticisms
9.1
General criticisms
9.2
Sartre’s philosophy
10
See also
11
References
11.1
Specific
11.2
Bibliography
11.3
Further reading
12
External links
12.1
Journals and articles

Definitional issues and background[edit]
The term is often seen as a historical convenience as it was first applied to many philosophers in hindsight, long after they had died. In fact, while existentialism is generally considered to have originated with Kierkegaard, the first prominent existentialist philosopher to adopt the term as a self-description was Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartre posits the idea that “what all existentialists have in common is the fundamental doctrine that existence precedes essence”, as scholar Frederick Copleston explains.[16] According to philosopher Steven Crowell, defining existentialism has been relatively difficult, and he argues that it is better understood as a general approach used to reject certain systematic philosophies rather than as a systematic philosophy itself.[2] Sartre himself, in a lecture delivered in 1945, described existentialism as “the attempt to draw all the consequences from a position of consistent atheism”.[17]
Although many outside Scandinavia consider the term existentialism to have originated from Kierkegaard himself, it is more likely that Kierkegaard adopted this term (or at least the term “existential” as a description of his philosophy) from the Norwegian poet and literary critic Johan Sebastian Cammermeyer Welhaven.[18] This assertion comes from two sources. The Norwegian philosopher Erik Lundestad refers to the Danish philosopher Fredrik Christian Sibbern. Sibbern is supposed to have had two conversations in 1841, the first with Welhaven and the second with Kierkegaard. It is in the first conversation that it is believed that Welhaven came up with “a word that he said covered a certain thinking, which had a close and positive attitude to life, a relationship he described as existential”.[19] This was then brought to Kierkegaard by Sibbern.
The second claim comes from the Norwegian historian Rune Slagstad, who claims to prove that Kierkegaard himself said the term “existential” was borrowed from the poet. He strongly believes that it was Kierkegaard himself who said that “Hegelians do not study philosophy ‘existentially’; to use a phrase by Welhaven from one time when I spoke with him about philosophy”.[20] On the other hand, the Norwegian historian Anne-Lise Seip is critical of Slagstad, and believes the statement in fact stems from the Norwegian literary historian Cathrinus Bang.[21]
Concepts[edit]
Existence precedes essence[edit]
Main article: Existence precedes essence
Sartre claimed that a central proposition of Existentialism is that existence precedes essence, which means that the most important consideration for individuals is that they are individuals—independently acting and responsible, conscious beings (“existence”)—rather than what labels, roles, stereotypes, definitions, or other preconceived categories the individuals fit (“essence”). The actual life of the individuals is what constitutes what could be called their “true essence” instead of there being an arbitrarily attributed essence others use to define them. Thus, human beings, through their own consciousness, create their own values and determine a meaning to their life.[22] Although it was Sartre who explicitly coined the phrase, similar notions can be found in the thought of existentialist philosophers such as Heidegger, and Kierkegaard:
“The subjective thinker’s form, the form of his communication, is his style. His form must be just as manifold as are the opposites that he holds together. The systematic eins, zwei, drei is an abstract form that also must inevitably run into trouble whenever it is to be applied to the concrete. To the same degree as the subjective thinker is concrete, to the same degree his form must also be concretely dialectical. But just as he himself is not a poet, not an ethicist, not a dialectician, so also his form is none of these directly. His form must first and last be related to existence, and in this regard he must have at his disposal the poetic, the ethical, the dialectical, the religious. Subordinate character, setting, etc., which belong to the well balanced character of the esthetic production, are in themselves breadth; the subjective thinker has only one setting—existence—and has nothing to do with localities and such things. The setting is not the fairyland of the imagination, where poetry produces consummation, nor is the setting laid in England, and historical accuracy is not a concern. The setting is inwardness in existing as a human being; the concretion is the relation of the existence-categories to one another. Historical accuracy and historical actuality are breadth.” Søren Kierkegaard (Concluding Postscript, Hong pp. 357–58)
Some interpret the imperative to define oneself as meaning that anyone can wish to be anything. However, an existentialist philosopher would say such a wish constitutes an inauthentic existence – what Sartre would call ‘bad faith’. Instead, the phrase should be taken to say that people are (1) defined only insofar as they act and (2) that they are responsible for their actions. For example, someone who acts cruelly towards other people is, by that act, defined as a cruel person. Furthermore, by this action of cruelty, such persons are themselves responsible for their new identity (cruel persons). This is as opposed to their genes, or human nature, bearing the blame.
As Sartre writes in his work Existentialism is a Humanism: “… man first of all exists, encounters himself, surges up in the world—and defines himself afterwards”. Of course, the more positive, therapeutic aspect of this is also implied: A person can choose to act in a different way, and to be a good person instead of a cruel person. Here it is also clear that since humans can choose to be either cruel or good, they are, in fact, neither of these things essentially.[23]
Sartre’s definition of existentialism was based on Heidegger’s magnum opus “Being and Time”. In a set of letters, Heidegger implies that Sartre misunderstood him for his own purposes of subjectivism, and that he did not mean that actions take precedence over being so long as those actions were not reflected upon. This way of living, Heidegger called “average everydayness”.
The Absurd[edit]
Main article: Absurdism
The notion of the Absurd contains the idea that there is no meaning in the world beyond what meaning we give it. This meaninglessness also encompasses the amorality or “unfairness” of the world. This contrasts with the notion that “bad things don’t happen to good people”; to the world, metaphorically speaking, there is no such thing as a good person or a bad person; what happens happens, and it may just as well happen to a “good” person as to a “bad” person.[24]
Because of the world’s absurdity, at any point in time, anything can happen to anyone, and a tragic event could plummet someone into direct confrontation with the Absurd. The notion of the Absurd has been prominent in literature throughout history. Many of the literary works of Søren Kierkegaard, Samuel Beckett, Franz Kafka, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Eugène Ionesco, Miguel de Unamuno, Luigi Pirandello,[25][26][27][28] Jean-Paul Sartre, Joseph Heller and Albert Camus contain descriptions of people who encounter the absurdity of the world.
It is in relation to the concept of the devastating awareness of meaninglessness that Albert Camus claimed that “there is only one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide” in his The Myth of Sisyphus. Although “prescriptions” against the possibly deleterious consequences of these kinds of encounters vary, from Kierkegaard’s religious “stage” to Camus’ insistence on persevering in spite of absurdity, the concern with helping people avoid living their lives in ways that put them in the perpetual danger of having everything meaningful break down is common to most existentialist philosophers. The possibility of having everything meaningful break down poses a threat of quietism, which is inherently against the existentialist philosophy.[29] It has been said that the possibility of suicide makes all humans existentialists.[30]
Facticity[edit]
Main article: Facticity
Facticity is a concept defined by Sartre in Being and Nothingness as the in-itself, which delineates for humans the modalities of being and not being. This can be more easily understood when considering facticity in relation to the temporal dimension of our past: one’s past is what one is, in the sense that it co-constitutes oneself. However, to say that one is only one’s past would be to ignore a significant part of reality (the present and the future), while saying that one’s past is only what one was, would entirely detach it from oneself now. A denial of one’s own concrete past constitutes an inauthentic lifestyle, and the same goes for all other kinds of facticity (having a human body—e.g. one that doesn’t allow a person to run faster than the speed of sound—identity, values, etc.).[31]
Facticity is both a limitation and a condition of freedom. It is a limitation in that a large part of one’s facticity consists of things one couldn’t have chosen (birthplace, etc.), but a condition of freedom in the sense that one’s values most likely depend on it. However, even though one’s facticity is “set in stone” (as being past, for instance), it cannot determine a person: The value ascribed to one’s facticity is still ascribed to it freely by that person. As an example, consider two men, one of whom has no memory of his past and the other who remembers everything. They both have committed many crimes, but the first man, knowing nothing about this, leads a rather normal life while the second man, feeling trapped by his own past, continues a life of crime, blaming his own past for “trapping” him in this life. There is nothing essential about his committing crimes, but he ascribes this meaning to his past.
However, to disregard one’s facticity when, in the continual process of self-making, one projects oneself into the future, that would be to put oneself in denial of oneself, and thus would be inauthentic. In other words, the origin of one’s projection must still be one’s facticity, though in the mode of not being it (essentially). Another aspect of facticity is that it entails angst, both in the sense that freedom “produces” angst when limited by facticity, and in the sense that the lack of the possibility of having facticity to “step in” for one to take responsibility for something one has done, also produces angst.
Another aspect of existential freedom is that one can change one’s values. Thus, one is responsible for one’s values, regardless of society’s values. The focus on freedom in existentialism is related to the limits of the responsibility one bears, as a result of one’s freedom: the relationship between freedom and responsibility is one of interdependency, and a clarification of freedom also clarifies that for which one is responsible.[32][33]
Authenticity[edit]
Main article: Authenticity
Many noted existentialist writers consider the theme of authentic existence important. Authentic existence involves the idea that one has to “create oneself” and then live in accordance with this self. What is meant by authenticity is that in acting, one should act as oneself, not as “one’s acts” or as “one’s genes” or any other essence requires. The authentic act is one that is in accordance with one’s freedom. Of course, as a condition of freedom is facticity, this includes one’s facticity, but not to the degree that this facticity can in any way determine one’s choices (in the sense that one could then blame one’s background for making the choice one made). The role of facticity in relation to authenticity involves letting one’s actual values come into play when one makes a choice (instead of, like Kierkegaard’s Aesthete, “choosing” randomly), so that one also takes responsibility for the act instead of choosing either-or without allowing the options to have different values.[34]
In contrast to this, the inauthentic is the denial to live in accordance with one’s freedom. This can take many forms, from pretending choices are meaningless or random, through convincing oneself that some form of determinism is true, to a sort of “mimicry” where one acts as “one should.” How “one should” act is often determined by an image one has of how one such as oneself (say, a bank manager, lion tamer, prostitute, etc.) acts. This image usually corresponds to some sort of social norm, but this does not mean that all acting in accordance with social norms is inauthentic: The main point is the attitude one takes to one’s own freedom and responsibility, and the extent to which one acts in accordance with this freedom.
The Other and the Look[edit]
Main article: Other
The Other (when written with a capital “O”) is a concept more properly belonging to phenomenology and its account of intersubjectivity. However, the concept has seen widespread use in existentialist writings, and the conclusions drawn from it differ slightly from the phenomenological accounts. The experience of the Other is the experience of another free subject who inhabits the same world as a person does. In its most basic form, it is this experience of the Other that constitutes intersubjectivity and objectivity. To clarify, when one experiences someone else, and this Other person experiences the world (the same world that a person experiences)—only from “over there”—the world itself is constituted as objective in that it is something that is “there” as identical for both of the subjects; a person experiences the other person as experiencing the same things. This experience of the Other’s look is what is termed the Look (sometimes the Gaze).[35]
While this experience, in its basic phenomenological sense, constitutes the world as objective, and oneself as objectively existing subjectivity (one experiences oneself as seen in the Other’s Look in precisely the same way that one experiences the Other as seen by him, as subjectivity), in existentialism, it also acts as a kind of limitation of freedom. This is because the Look tends to objectify what it sees. As such, when one experiences oneself in the Look, one doesn’t experience oneself as nothing (no thing), but as something. Sartre’s own example of a man peeping at someone through a keyhole can help clarify this: at first, this man is entirely caught up in the situation he is in; he is in a pre-reflexive state where his entire consciousness is directed at what goes on in the room. Suddenly, he hears a creaking floorboard behind him, and he becomes aware of himself as seen by the Other. He is thus filled with shame for he perceives himself as he would perceive someone else doing what he was doing, as a Peeping Tom. The Look is then co-constitutive of one’s facticity.
Another characteristic feature of the Look is that no Other really needs to have been there: It is quite possible that the creaking floorboard was nothing but the movement of an old house; the Look isn’t some kind of mystical telepathic experience of the actual way the other sees one (there may also have been someone there, but he could have not noticed that the person was there). It is only one’s perception of the way another might perceive him.
Angst and dread[edit]
Main article: Angst
See also: Living educational theory
“Existential angst”, sometimes called existential dread, anxiety, or anguish, is a term that is common to many existentialist thinkers. It is generally held to be a negative feeling arising from the experience of human freedom and responsibility. The archetypical example is the experience one has when standing on a cliff where one not only fears falling off it, but also dreads the possibility of throwing oneself off. In this experience that “nothing is holding me back”, one senses the lack of anything that predetermines one to either throw oneself off or to stand still, and one experiences one’s own freedom.[24]
It can also be seen in relation to the previous point how angst is before nothing, and this is what sets it apart from fear that has an object. While in the case of fear, one can take definitive measures to remove the object of fear, in the case of angst, no such “constructive” measures are possible. The use of the word “nothing” in this context relates both to the inherent insecurity about the consequences of one’s actions, and to the fact that, in experiencing freedom as angst, one also realizes that one is fully responsible for these consequences. There is nothing in people (genetically, for instance) that acts in their stead—that they can blame if something goes wrong. Therefore, not every choice is perceived as having dreadful possible consequences (and, it can be claimed, human lives would be unbearable if every choice facilitated dread). However, this doesn’t change the fact that freedom remains a condition of every action.
Despair[edit]
Main article: Despair
See also: Existential crisis
Despair, in existentialism, is generally defined as a loss of hope.[36] More specifically, it is a loss of hope in reaction to a breakdown in one or more of the defining qualities of one’s self or identity. If a person is invested in being a particular thing, such as a bus driver or an upstanding citizen, and then finds his being-thing compromised, he would normally be found in state of despair—a hopeless state. For example, a singer who loses the ability to sing may despair if she has nothing else to fall back on—nothing to rely on for her identity. She finds herself unable to be what defined her being.
What sets the existentialist notion of despair apart from the conventional definition is that existentialist despair is a state one is in even when he isn’t overtly in despair. So long as a person’s identity depends on qualities that can crumble, he is in perpetual despair—and as there is, in Sartrean terms, no human essence found in conventional reality on which to constitute the individual’s sense of identity, despair is a universal human condition. As Kierkegaard defines it in Either/Or: “Let each one learn what he can; both of us can learn that a person’s unhappiness never lies in his lack of control over external conditions, since this would only make him completely unhappy.”[37] In Works of Love, he said:
When the God-forsaken worldliness of earthly life shuts itself in complacency, the confined air develops poison, the moment gets stuck and stands still, the prospect is lost, a need is felt for a refreshing, enlivening breeze to cleanse the air and dispel the poisonous vapors lest we suffocate in worldliness. … Lovingly to hope all things is the opposite of despairingly to hope nothing at all. Love hopes all things—yet is never put to shame. To relate oneself expectantly to the possibility of the good is to hope. To relate oneself expectantly to the possibility of evil is to fear. By the decision to choose hope one decides infinitely more than it seems, because it is an eternal decision. pp. 246–50
Opposition to positivism and rationalism[edit]
See also: Positivism and Rationalism
Existentialists oppose definitions of human beings as primarily rational, and, therefore, oppose positivism and rationalism. Existentialism asserts that people actually make decisions based on subjective meaning rather than pure rationality. The rejection of reason as the source of meaning is a common theme of existentialist thought, as is the focus on the feelings of anxiety and dread that we feel in the face of our own radical freedom and our awareness of death. Kierkegaard advocated rationality as means to interact with the objective world (e.g. in the natural sciences), but when it comes to existential problems, reason is insufficient: “Human reason has boundaries”.[38]
Like Kierkegaard, Sartre saw problems with rationality, calling it a form of “bad faith”, an attempt by the self to impose structure on a world of phenomena—”the Other”—that is fundamentally irrational and random. According to Sartre, rationality and other forms of bad faith hinder people from finding meaning in freedom. To try to suppress their feelings of anxiety and dread, people confine themselves within everyday experience, Sartre asserts, thereby relinquishing their freedom and acquiescing to being possessed in one form or another by “the Look” of “the Other” (i.e., possessed by another person—or at least one’s idea of that other person).
Religion[edit]
See also: Atheistic existentialism, Christian existentialism, and Jewish existentialism
An existentialist reading of the Bible would demand that the reader recognize that he is an existing subject studying the words more as a recollection of events. This is in contrast to looking at a collection of “truths” that are outside and unrelated to the reader, but may develop a sense of reality/God. Such a reader is not obligated to follow the commandments as if an external agent is forcing them upon him, but as though they are inside him and guiding him from inside. This is the task Kierkegaard takes up when he asks: “Who has the more difficult task: the teacher who lectures on earnest things a meteor’s distance from everyday life – or the learner who should put it to use?”[39]
Nihilism[edit]
See also: Existential nihilism
Although nihilism and existentialism are distinct philosophies, they are often confused with one another. A primary cause of confusion is that Friedrich Nietzsche is an important philosopher in both fields, but also the existentialist insistence on the inherent meaninglessness of the world. Existentialist philosophers often stress the importance of Angst as signifying the absolute lack of any objective ground for action, a move that is often reduced to a moral or an existential nihilism. A pervasive theme in the works of existentialist philosophy, however, is to persist through encounters with the absurd, as seen in Camus’ The Myth of Sisyphus (“One must imagine Sisyphus happy”),[40] and it is only very rarely that existentialist philosophers dismiss morality or one’s self-created meaning: Kierkegaard regained a sort of morality in the religious (although he wouldn’t himself agree that it was ethical; the religious suspends the ethical), and Sartre’s final words in Being and Nothingness are “All these questions, which refer us to a pure and not an accessory (or impure) reflection, can find their reply only on the ethical plane. We shall devote to them a future work.”[41]
Etymology[edit]
The term “existentialism” was coined by the French Catholic philosopher Gabriel Marcel in the mid-1940s.[42][43][44] At first, when Marcel applied the term to him at a colloquium in 1945, Jean-Paul Sartre rejected it.[45] Sartre subsequently changed his mind and, on October 29, 1945, publicly adopted the existentialist label in a lecture to the Club Maintenant in Paris. The lecture was published as L’existentialisme est un humanisme (Existentialism is a Humanism), a short book that did much to popularize existentialist thought.[46] Marcel later came to reject the label himself in favour of the term Neo-Socratic, in honor of Kierkegaard’s essay “On The Concept of Irony”.
Some scholars argue that the term should be used only to refer to the cultural movement in Europe in the 1940s and 1950s associated with the works of the philosophers Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Albert Camus.[2] Other scholars extend the term to Kierkegaard, and yet others extend it as far back as Socrates.[47] However, the term is often identified with the philosophical views of Jean-Paul Sartre.[2]
History[edit]
19th century[edit]
Kierkegaard and Nietzsche[edit]
Main article: Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche
Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche were two of the first philosophers considered fundamental to the existentialist movement, though neither used the term “existentialism” and it is unclear whether they would have supported the existentialism of the 20th century. They focused on subjective human experience rather than the objective truths of mathematics and science, which they believed were too detached or observational to truly get at the human experience. Like Pascal, they were interested in people’s quiet struggle with the apparent meaninglessness of life and the use of diversion to escape from boredom. Unlike Pascal, Kierkegaard and Nietzsche also considered the role of making free choices, particularly regarding fundamental values and beliefs, and how such choices change the nature and identity of the chooser.[48] Kierkegaard’s knight of faith and Nietzsche’s Übermensch are representative of people who exhibit Freedom, in that they define the nature of their own existence. Nietzsche’s idealized individual invents his own values and creates the very terms they excel under. By contrast, Kierkegaard, opposed to the level of abstraction in Hegel, and not nearly as hostile (actually welcoming) to Christianity as Nietzsche, argues through a pseudonym that the objective certainty of religious truths (specifically Christian) is not only impossible, but even founded on logical paradoxes. Yet he continues to imply that a leap of faith is a possible means for an individual to reach a higher stage of existence that transcends and contains both an aesthetic and ethical value of life. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche were also precursors to other intellectual movements, including postmodernism, and various strands of psychology. However, Kierkegaard believed that individuals should live in accordance with their thinking.
Dostoyevsky[edit]
The first important literary author also important to existentialism was the Russian Fyodor Dostoyevsky.[49] Dostoyevsky’s Notes from Underground portrays a man unable to fit into society and unhappy with the identities he creates for himself. Jean-Paul Sartre, in his book on existentialism Existentialism is a Humanism, quoted Dostoyevsky’s The Brothers Karamazov as an example of existential crisis. Sartre attributes Ivan Karamazov’s claim, “If God did not exist, everything would be permitted”[50] to Dostoyevsky himself, though this quote does not appear in the novel.[51] However, a similar sentiment is explicitly stated when Alyosha visits Dimitri in prison. Dimitri mentions his conversations with Rakitin in which the idea that “Then, if He doesn’t exist, man is king of the earth, of the universe” allowing the inference contained in Sartre’s attribution to remain a valid idea contested within the novel.[52] Other Dostoyevsky novels covered issues raised in existentialist philosophy while presenting story lines divergent from secular existentialism: for example, in Crime and Punishment, the protagonist Raskolnikov experiences an existential crisis and then moves toward a Christian Orthodox worldview similar to that advocated by Dostoyevsky himself.[citation needed]
Early 20th century[edit]
See also: Martin Heidegger
In the first decades of the 20th century, a number of philosophers and writers explored existentialist ideas. The Spanish philosopher Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo, in his 1913 book The Tragic Sense of Life in Men and Nations, emphasized the life of “flesh and bone” as opposed to that of abstract rationalism. Unamuno rejected systematic philosophy in favor of the individual’s quest for faith. He retained a sense of the tragic, even absurd nature of the quest, symbolized by his enduring interest in Cervantes’ fictional character Don Quixote. A novelist, poet and dramatist as well as philosophy professor at the University of Salamanca, Unamuno wrote a short story about a priest’s crisis of faith, Saint Manuel the Good, Martyr, which has been collected in anthologies of existentialist fiction. Another Spanish thinker, Ortega y Gasset, writing in 1914, held that human existence must always be defined as the individual person combined with the concrete circumstances of his life: “Yo soy yo y mi circunstancia” (“I am myself and my circumstances”). Sartre likewise believed that human existence is not an abstract matter, but is always situated (“en situation”).
Although Martin Buber wrote his major philosophical works in German, and studied and taught at the Universities of Berlin and Frankfurt, he stands apart from the mainstream of German philosophy. Born into a Jewish family in Vienna in 1878, he was also a scholar of Jewish culture and involved at various times in Zionism and Hasidism. In 1938, he moved permanently to Jerusalem. His best-known philosophical work was the short book I and Thou, published in 1922. For Buber, the fundamental fact of human existence, too readily overlooked by scientific rationalism and abstract philosophical thought, is “man with man”, a dialogue that takes place in the so-called “sphere of between” (“das Zwischenmenschliche”).[53]
Two Russian thinkers, Lev Shestov and Nikolai Berdyaev, became well known as existentialist thinkers during their post-Revolutionary exiles in Paris. Shestov, born into a Ukrainian-Jewish family in Kiev, had launched an attack on rationalism and systematization in philosophy as early as 1905 in his book of aphorisms All Things Are Possible.
Berdyaev, also from Kiev but with a background in the Eastern Orthodox Church, drew a radical distinction between the world of spirit and the everyday world of objects. Human freedom, for Berdyaev, is rooted in the realm of spirit, a realm independent of scientific notions of causation. To the extent the individual human being lives in the objective world, he is estranged from authentic spiritual freedom. “Man” is not to be interpreted naturalistically, but as a being created in God’s image, an originator of free, creative acts.[54] He published a major work on these themes, The Destiny of Man, in 1931.
Gabriel Marcel, long before coining the term “existentialism”, introduced important existentialist themes to a French audience in his early essay “Existence and Objectivity” (1925) and in his Metaphysical Journal (1927).[55] A dramatist as well as a philosopher, Marcel found his philosophical starting point in a condition of metaphysical alienation: the human individual searching for harmony in a transient life. Harmony, for Marcel, was to be sought through “secondary reflection”, a “dialogical” rather than “dialectical” approach to the world, characterized by “wonder and astonishment” and open to the “presence” of other people and of God rather than merely to “information” about them. For Marcel, such presence implied more than simply being there (as one thing might be in the presence of another thing); it connoted “extravagant” availability, and the willingness to put oneself at the disposal of the other.[56]
Marcel contrasted secondary reflection with abstract, scientific-technical primary reflection, which he associated with the activity of the abstract Cartesian ego. For Marcel, philosophy was a concrete activity undertaken by a sensing, feeling human being incarnate—embodied—in a concrete world.[55][57] Although Jean-Paul Sartre adopted the term “existentialism” for his own philosophy in the 1940s, Marcel’s thought has been described as “almost diametrically opposed” to that of Sartre.[55] Unlike Sartre, Marcel was a Christian, and became a Catholic convert in 1929.
In Germany, the psychologist and philosopher Karl Jaspers—who later described existentialism as a “phantom” created by the public[58]—called his own thought, heavily influenced by Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, Existenzphilosophie. For Jaspers, “Existenz-philosophy is the way of thought by means of which man seeks to become himself…This way of thought does not cognize objects, but elucidates and makes actual the being of the thinker”.[59]
Jaspers, a professor at the University of Heidelberg, was acquainted with Martin Heidegger, who held a professorship at Marburg before acceding to Husserl’s chair at Freiburg in 1928. They held many philosophical discussions, but later became estranged over Heidegger’s support of National Socialism (Nazism). They shared an admiration for Kierkegaard,[60] and in the 1930s, Heidegger lectured extensively on Nietzsche. Nevertheless, the extent to which Heidegger should be considered an existentialist is debatable. In Being and Time he presented a method of rooting philosophical explanations in human existence (Dasein) to be analysed in terms of existential categories (existentiale); and this has led many commentators to treat him as an important figure in the existentialist movement.
After the Second World War[edit]
Following the Second World War, existentialism became a well-known and significant philosophical and cultural movement, mainly through the public prominence of two French writers, Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, who wrote best-selling novels, plays and widely read journalism as well as theoretical texts.[61] These years also saw the growing reputation of Heidegger’s book Being and Time outside Germany.

French philosophers Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir
Sartre dealt with existentialist themes in his 1938 novel Nausea and the short stories in his 1939 collection The Wall, and had published his treatise on existentialism, Being and Nothingness, in 1943, but it was in the two years following the liberation of Paris from the German occupying forces that he and his close associates—Camus, Simone de Beauvoir, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and others—became internationally famous as the leading figures of a movement known as existentialism.[62] In a very short period of time, Camus and Sartre in particular became the leading public intellectuals of post-war France, achieving by the end of 1945 “a fame that reached across all audiences.”[63] Camus was an editor of the most popular leftist (former French Resistance) newspaper Combat; Sartre launched his journal of leftist thought, Les Temps Modernes, and two weeks later gave the widely reported lecture on existentialism and secular humanism to a packed meeting of the Club Maintenant. Beauvoir wrote that “not a week passed without the newspapers discussing us”;[64] existentialism became “the first media craze of the postwar era.”[65]
By the end of 1947, Camus’ earlier fiction and plays had been reprinted, his new play Caligula had been performed and his novel The Plague published; the first two novels of Sartre’s The Roads to Freedom trilogy had appeared, as had Beauvoir’s novel The Blood of Others. Works by Camus and Sartre were already appearing in foreign editions. The Paris-based existentialists had become famous.[62]
Sartre had traveled to Germany in 1930 to study the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger,[66] and he included critical comments on their work in his major treatise Being and Nothingness. Heidegger’s thought had also become known in French philosophical circles through its use by Alexandre Kojève in explicating Hegel in a series of lectures given in Paris in the 1930s.[67] The lectures were highly influential; members of the audience included not only Sartre and Merleau-Ponty, but Raymond Queneau, Georges Bataille, Louis Althusser, André Breton, and Jacques Lacan.[68] A selection from Heidegger’s Being and Time was published in French in 1938, and his essays began to appear in French philosophy journals.

French-Algerian philosopher, novelist, and playwright Albert Camus
Heidegger read Sartre’s work and was initially impressed, commenting: “Here for the first time I encountered an independent thinker who, from the foundations up, has experienced the area out of which I think. Your work shows such an immediate comprehension of my philosophy as I have never before encountered.”[69] Later, however, in response to a question posed by his French follower Jean Beaufret,[70] Heidegger distanced himself from Sartre’s position and existentialism in general in his Letter on Humanism.[71] Heidegger’s reputation continued to grow in France during the 1950s and 1960s. In the 1960s, Sartre attempted to reconcile existentialism and Marxism in his work Critique of Dialectical Reason. A major theme throughout his writings was freedom and responsibility.
Camus was a friend of Sartre, until their falling-out, and wrote several works with existential themes including The Rebel, Summer in Algiers, The Myth of Sisyphus, and The Stranger, the latter being “considered—to what would have been Camus’s irritation—the exemplary existentialist novel.”[72] Camus, like many others, rejected the existentialist label, and considered his works concerned with facing the absurd. In the titular book, Camus uses the analogy of the Greek myth of Sisyphus to demonstrate the futility of existence. In the myth, Sisyphus is condemned for eternity to roll a rock up a hill, but when he reaches the summit, the rock will roll to the bottom again. Camus believes that this existence is pointless but that Sisyphus ultimately finds meaning and purpose in his task, simply by continually applying himself to it. The first half of the book contains an extended rebuttal of what Camus took to be existentialist philosophy in the works of Kierkegaard, Shestov, Heidegger, and Jaspers.
Simone de Beauvoir, an important existentialist who spent much of her life as Sartre’s partner, wrote about feminist and existentialist ethics in her works, including The Second Sex and The Ethics of Ambiguity. Although often overlooked due to her relationship with Sartre,[73] de Beauvoir integrated existentialism with other forms of thinking such as feminism, unheard of at the time, resulting in alienation from fellow writers such as Camus.[citation needed]
Paul Tillich, an important existentialist theologian following Kierkegaard and Karl Barth, applied existentialist concepts to Christian theology, and helped introduce existential theology to the general public. His seminal work The Courage to Be follows Kierkegaard’s analysis of anxiety and life’s absurdity, but puts forward the thesis that modern humans must, via God, achieve selfhood in spite of life’s absurdity. Rudolf Bultmann used Kierkegaard’s and Heidegger’s philosophy of existence to demythologize Christianity by interpreting Christian mythical concepts into existentialist concepts.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty, an existential phenomenologist, was for a time a companion of Sartre. Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology of Perception (1945) was recognized as a major statement of French existentialism.[74] It has been said that Merleau-Ponty’s work Humanism and Terror greatly influenced Sartre. However, in later years they were to disagree irreparably, dividing many existentialists such as de Beauvoir,[citation needed] who sided with Sartre.
Colin Wilson, an English writer, published his study The Outsider in 1956, initially to critical acclaim. In this book and others (e.g. Introduction to the New Existentialism), he attempted to reinvigorate what he perceived as a pessimistic philosophy and bring it to a wider audience. He was not, however, academically trained, and his work was attacked by professional philosophers for lack of rigor and critical standards.[75]
Influence outside philosophy[edit]
Art[edit]
Film and television[edit]
Stanley Kubrick’s 1957 anti-war film Paths of Glory “illustrates, and even illuminates…existentialism” by examining the “necessary absurdity of the human condition” and the “horror of war”.[76] The film tells the story of a fictional World War I French army regiment ordered to attack an impregnable German stronghold; when the attack fails, three soldiers are chosen at random, court-martialed by a “kangaroo court”, and executed by firing squad. The film examines existentialist ethics, such as the issue of whether objectivity is possible and the “problem of authenticity”.[76] Orson Welles’ 1962 film The Trial, based upon Franz Kafka’s book of the same name (Der Process), is characteristic of both existentialist and absurdist themes in its depiction of a man (Joseph K.) arrested for a crime for which the charges are neither revealed to him nor to the reader.
Neon Genesis Evangelion is a Japanese science fiction animation series created by the anime studio Gainax and was both directed and written by Hideaki Anno. Existential themes of individuality, consciousness, freedom, choice, and responsibility are heavily relied upon throughout the entire series, particularly through the philosophies of Jean-Paul Sartre and Søren Kierkegaard. Episode 16’s title, “The Sickness Unto Death, And…” (死に至る病、そして Shi ni itaru yamai, soshite?) is a reference to Kierkegaard’s book, The Sickness Unto Death. Some contemporary films dealing with existentialist issues include Fight Club, I ♥ Huckabees, Waking Life, The Matrix, Ordinary People, and Life in a Day.[77] Likewise, films throughout the 20th century such as The Seventh Seal, Ikiru, Taxi Driver, the Toy Story films, The Great Silence, Ghost in the Shell, Harold and Maude, High Noon, Easy Rider, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, A Clockwork Orange, Groundhog Day, Apocalypse Now, Badlands, and Blade Runner also have existentialist qualities.[78]
Notable directors known for their existentialist films include Ingmar Bergman, François Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard, Michelangelo Antonioni, Akira Kurosawa, Terrence Malick, Stanley Kubrick, Andrei Tarkovsky, Hideaki Anno, Wes Anderson, Woody Allen, and Christopher Nolan.[79] Charlie Kaufman’s Synecdoche, New York focuses on the protagonist’s desire to find existential meaning.[80] Similarly, in Kurosawa’s Red Beard, the protagonist’s experiences as an intern in a rural health clinic in Japan lead him to an existential crisis whereby he questions his reason for being. This, in turn, leads him to a better understanding of humanity. The French film, Mood Indigo (directed by Michel Gondry) embraced various elements of existentialism.[citation needed] The film The Shawshank Redemption, released in 1994, depicts life in a prison in Maine, United States to explore several existentialist concepts.[81]
Literature[edit]
Existential perspectives are also found in modern literature to varying degrees, especially since the 1920s. Louis-Ferdinand Céline’s Journey to the End of the Night (Voyage au bout de la nuit, 1932) celebrated by both Sartre and Beauvoir, contained many of the themes that would be found in later existential literature, and is in some ways, the proto-existential novel. Jean-Paul Sartre’s 1938 novel Nausea[82] was “steeped in Existential ideas”, and is considered an accessible way of grasping his philosophical stance.[83] Between 1900 and 1960, other authors such as Albert Camus, Franz Kafka, Rainer Maria Rilke, T.S. Eliot, Herman Hesse, Luigi Pirandello,[25][26][28][84][85][86] Ralph Ellison,[87][88][89][90] and Jack Kerouac, composed literature or poetry that contained, to varying degrees, elements of existential or proto-existential thought. The philosophy’s influence even reached pulp literature shortly after the turn of the 20th century, as seen in the existential disparity witnessed in Man’s lack of control of his fate in the works of H.P. Lovecraft.[91] Since the late 1960s, a great deal of cultural activity in literature contains postmodernist as well as existential elements. Books such as Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (1968) (now republished as Blade Runner) by Philip K. Dick, Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut, and Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk all distort the line between reality and appearance while simultaneously espousing existential themes.
Theatre[edit]
Jean-Paul Sartre wrote No Exit in 1944, an existentialist play originally published in French as Huis Clos (meaning In Camera or “behind closed doors”), which is the source of the popular quote, “Hell is other people.” (In French, “L’enfer, c’est les autres”). The play begins with a Valet leading a man into a room that the audience soon realizes is in hell. Eventually he is joined by two women. After their entry, the Valet leaves and the door is shut and locked. All three expect to be tortured, but no torturer arrives. Instead, they realize they are there to torture each other, which they do effectively by probing each other’s sins, desires, and unpleasant memories.
Existentialist themes are displayed in the Theatre of the Absurd, notably in Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot, in which two men divert themselves while they wait expectantly for someone (or something) named Godot who never arrives. They claim Godot is an acquaintance, but in fact, hardly know him, admitting they would not recognize him if they saw him. Samuel Beckett, once asked who or what Godot is, replied, “If I knew, I would have said so in the play.” To occupy themselves, the men eat, sleep, talk, argue, sing, play games, exercise, swap hats, and contemplate suicide—anything “to hold the terrible silence at bay”.[92] The play “exploits several archetypal forms and situations, all of which lend themselves to both comedy and pathos.”[93] The play also illustrates an attitude toward human experience on earth: the poignancy, oppression, camaraderie, hope, corruption, and bewilderment of human experience that can be reconciled only in the mind and art of the absurdist. The play examines questions such as death, the meaning of human existence and the place of God in human existence.
Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead is an absurdist tragicomedy first staged at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 1966.[94] The play expands upon the exploits of two minor characters from Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Comparisons have also been drawn to Samuel Beckett’s Waiting For Godot, for the presence of two central characters who appear almost as two halves of a single character. Many plot features are similar as well: the characters pass time by playing Questions, impersonating other characters, and interrupting each other or remaining silent for long periods of time. The two characters are portrayed as two clowns or fools in a world beyond their understanding. They stumble through philosophical arguments while not realizing the implications, and muse on the irrationality and randomness of the world.
Jean Anouilh’s Antigone also presents arguments founded on existentialist ideas.[95] It is a tragedy inspired by Greek mythology and the play of the same name (Antigone, by Sophocles) from the 5th century BC. In English, it is often distinguished from its antecedent by being pronounced in its original French form, approximately “Ante-GŌN.” The play was first performed in Paris on 6 February 1944, during the Nazi occupation of France. Produced under Nazi censorship, the play is purposefully ambiguous with regards to the rejection of authority (represented by Antigone) and the acceptance of it (represented by Creon). The parallels to the French Resistance and the Nazi occupation have been drawn. Antigone rejects life as desperately meaningless but without affirmatively choosing a noble death. The crux of the play is the lengthy dialogue concerning the nature of power, fate, and choice, during which Antigone says that she is, “… disgusted with [the]…promise of a humdrum happiness.” She states that she would rather die than live a mediocre existence.
Critic Martin Esslin in his book Theatre of the Absurd pointed out how many contemporary playwrights such as Samuel Beckett, Eugène Ionesco, Jean Genet, and Arthur Adamov wove into their plays the existentialist belief that we are absurd beings loose in a universe empty of real meaning. Esslin noted that many of these playwrights demonstrated the philosophy better than did the plays by Sartre and Camus. Though most of such playwrights, subsequently labeled “Absurdist” (based on Esslin’s book), denied affiliations with existentialism and were often staunchly anti-philosophical (for example Ionesco often claimed he identified more with ‘Pataphysics or with Surrealism than with existentialism), the playwrights are often linked to existentialism based on Esslin’s observation.[96]
Psychoanalysis and psychotherapy[edit]
Main article: Existential therapy
A major offshoot of existentialism as a philosophy is existentialist psychology and psychoanalysis, which first crystallized in the work of Otto Rank, Freud’s closest associate for 20 years. Without awareness of the writings of Rank, Ludwig Binswanger was influenced by Freud, Edmund Husserl, Heidegger, and Sartre. A later figure was Viktor Frankl, who briefly met Freud and studied with Jung as a young man.[97] His logotherapy can be regarded as a form of existentialist therapy. The existentialists would also influence social psychology, antipositivist micro-sociology, symbolic interactionism, and post-structuralism, with the work of thinkers such as Georg Simmel[98] and Michel Foucault. Foucault was a great reader of Kierkegaard even though he almost never refers this author, who nonetheless had for him an importance as secret as it was decisive.[99]
An early contributor to existentialist psychology in the United States was Rollo May, who was strongly influenced by Kierkegaard and Otto Rank. One of the most prolific writers on techniques and theory of existentialist psychology in the USA is Irvin D. Yalom. Yalom states that
Aside from their reaction against Freud’s mechanistic, deterministic model of the mind and their assumption of a phenomenological approach in therapy, the existentialist analysts have little in common and have never been regarded as a cohesive ideological school. These thinkers—who include Ludwig Binswanger, Medard Boss, Eugène Minkowski, V.E. Gebsattel, Roland Kuhn, G. Caruso, F.T. Buytendijk, G. Bally and Victor Frankl—were almost entirely unknown to the American psychotherapeutic community until Rollo May’s highly influential 1985 book Existence—and especially his introductory essay—introduced their work into this country.[100]
A more recent contributor to the development of a European version of existentialist psychotherapy is the British-based Emmy van Deurzen.
Anxiety’s importance in existentialism makes it a popular topic in psychotherapy. Therapists often offer existentialist philosophy as an explanation for anxiety. The assertion is that anxiety is manifested of an individual’s complete freedom to decide, and complete responsibility for the outcome of such decisions. Psychotherapists using an existentialist approach believe that a patient can harness his anxiety and use it constructively. Instead of suppressing anxiety, patients are advised to use it as grounds for change. By embracing anxiety as inevitable, a person can use it to achieve his full potential in life. Humanistic psychology also had major impetus from existentialist psychology and shares many of the fundamental tenets. Terror management theory, based on the writings of Ernest Becker and Otto Rank, is a developing area of study within the academic study of psychology. It looks at what researchers claim are implicit emotional reactions of people confronted with the knowledge that they will eventually die.
Also, Gerd B. Achenbach has refreshed the socratic tradition with his own blend of philosophical counseling. So did Michel Weber with his Chromatiques Center in Belgium.
Criticisms[edit]
General criticisms[edit]
Walter Kaufmann criticized ‘the profoundly unsound methods and the dangerous contempt for reason that have been so prominent in existentialism.'[101] Logical positivist philosophers, such as Rudolf Carnap and A. J. Ayer, assert that existentialists are often confused about the verb “to be” in their analyses of “being”.[102] Specifically, they argue that the verb is transitive and pre-fixed to a predicate (e.g., an apple is red) (without a predicate, the word is meaningless), and that existentialists frequently misuse the term in this manner. Colin Wilson has stated in his book The Angry Years that existentialism has created many of its own difficulties: “we can see how this question of freedom of the will has been vitiated by post-romantic philosophy, with its inbuilt tendency to laziness and boredom, we can also see how it came about that existentialism found itself in a hole of its own digging, and how the philosophical developments since then have amounted to walking in circles round that hole”.[103]
Sartre’s philosophy[edit]
Many critics argue Jean-Paul Sartre’s philosophy is contradictory. Specifically, they argue that Sartre makes metaphysical arguments despite his claiming that his philosophical views ignore metaphysics. Herbert Marcuse criticized Sartre’s 1943 Being and Nothingness for projecting anxiety and meaninglessness onto the nature of existence itself: “Insofar as Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine, it remains an idealistic doctrine: it hypostatizes specific historical conditions of human existence into ontological and metaphysical characteristics. Existentialism thus becomes part of the very ideology which it attacks, and its radicalism is illusory”.[104]
In Letter on Humanism, Heidegger criticized Sartre’s existentialism:
Existentialism says existence precedes essence. In this statement he is taking existentia and essentia according to their metaphysical meaning, which, from Plato’s time on, has said that essentia precedes existentia. Sartre reverses this statement. But the reversal of a metaphysical statement remains a metaphysical

Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on EXISTENTIALISM

CARNAL KNOWLEDGE

In Memoriam 1942 – 2013 “Roger Ebert loved movies.”

RogerEbert.com
Reviews
Great Movies
Chaz’s Journal
Blogs
Far Flungers
Channels
Contributors

Reviews
Carnal Knowledge

Carnal Knowledge (1971)
Cast
Jack Nicholson as Jonathan
Candice Bergen as Susan
Art Garfunkel as Sandy
Ann-Margret as Bobbie
Rita Moreno as Louise
Cynthia O’Neal as Cindy
Carol Kane as Jennifer
Produced and directed by
Mike Nichols
Screenplay by
Jules Feiffer
Comedy, Drama, Romance
Rated R
98 minutes
 |  Roger Ebert
July 6, 1971   |  
Print Page

Tweet
Mike Nichols’ “Carnal Knowledge” opens on a darkened screen, and we hear the traditional Glenn Miller arrangement of “Moonlight Serenade.” And then we hear two young men earnestly talking of young women, and sex, and their ambitions in those two directions.
We learn that the first young man hopes to meet a high-class girl, one with morals, who will tell him things he never knew about himself. We learn that the second young man wants exactly that kind of girl too, only with big boobs. And then…
Advertisement

We find ourselves at a college mixer sometime in the late 1940s. Candice Bergen drifts past the two intense young men, who are leaning in a doorway and checking out the talent, and she finds herself a perch on a windowsill. “She’s yours. I’m giving her to you,” Jack Nicholson (who doesn’t have her to give) tells Art Garfunkel (who doesn’t know how to take her).
After a pep talk from Nicholson, Garfunkel finally musters the courage to wander over toward Miss Bergen, but he’s too shy to speak. He stops in front of her, pretends to look out the window at something tremendously interesting (if invisible) on the other side, and then returns to Nicholson, defeated.
With the perception and economy that mark their entire film, Nichols and his writer, Jules Feiffer, have established the theme of “Carnal Knowledge” in this handful of shots: The film will be about men who are incapable of reaching, touching or deeply knowing women.
We meet the two men during their college years, and follow them for maybe 20 years afterward as they drift through a marriage apiece and several frustrating liaisons with the kinds of women they think they desire. Both men rely a great deal on their supposed sexual prowess, but both are insecure sexually and the Nicholson character finally becomes impotent.
Their problem, to the degree they share one, is that they try to find their fantasy-woman in the flesh, and discover when the fantasy becomes real that the real woman is all too real for them to live with and understand. The thing is, they both want to be dominated by women — only not really.
“Carnal Knowledge” never finds its male characters at “fault,” exactly, and the movie isn’t concerned with fixing blame. It chooses the tragedy form, not the essay. At the end, we’re left with people who have experienced as much suffering as they’ve caused through their inability to accept women as fellow human beings. The Nicholson character is reduced to highly complicated charades with a prostitute (Rita Moreno), and the Garfunkel character is still kidding himself. In his early 40s, he’s grown a mustache and affected a hip life style and shacked up with a 17-year-old. “She may only be 17,” he tells his old classmate, “but in many ways, I’m telling you, she’s older than me.”
Advertisement

“Carnal Knowledge” is clearly Mike Nichols’ best film. It sets out to tell us certain things about these few characters and their sexual crucifixions, and it succeeds. It doesn’t go for cheap or facile laughs, or inappropriate symbolism, or a phony kind of contemporary feeling.
The Ann-Margret role is the best example, I think, of Nichols’ determination to stay within the diameters of his characters. Ann-Margret has been in a lot of bad movies, and done some bad acting in them, and this role (with makeup including a remarkably realistic artificial chest) could have degenerated into a parody with no trouble at all. Instead, it’s an artistic triumph.
Nicholson, who is possibly the most interesting new movie actor since James Dean, carries the film, and his scenes with Ann-Margret are masterfully played. Art Garfunkel tends to be a shade transparent, although not to the degree that the film suffers, and Candice Bergen is very good, but in the kind of role she plays too often, the sweet-bitchy-classy college girl.
As I’ve suggested, “Carnal Knowledge” stays within the universe of its characters, and inhabits it totally. And within that universe, men and woman fail to find sexual and personal happiness because they can’t break through their patterns of treating each other as objects.
Around The Web

Why Clay From ’13 Reasons Why’ Looks So Familiar

Why Hollywood Won’t Cast Elisha Cuthbert Anymore

Actors Who Ruined Their Career in a Matter of Seconds

Why Lagertha From ‘Vikings’ Looks So Familiar

16 Upcoming DC Movies That Are Going To Blow Everyone Away

‘Happy Days’ Star Sadly Dies at 56

Popular Blog Posts
Who do you read? Good Roger, or Bad Roger? Roger Ebert
This message came to me from a reader named Peter Svensland. He and a fr…
Pure, Unadulterated Fun: “Mystery Science Theater 3000” is Revived on Netflix Peter Sobczynski
A review of the “Mystery Science Theater 3000” revival that’s now playing on Netflix.
Popular Reviews

Sandy Wexler

Free Fire

The Void

Spark: A Space Tail

comments powered by Disqus
Advertisement

Subscribe to our mailing list
Enter Your Email Address

Advertisement

The Ebert Club is our hand-picked selection of content for Ebert fans. You will receive a weekly newsletter full of movie-related tidbits, articles, trailers, even the occasional streamable movie. Club members also get access to our members-only section on RogerEbert.com
Premiere Member : $20.00USD – yearly

Advertisement

Reviews RSS
Related Articles

Bright Wall/Dark Room Excerpt January 2015: “Break, Blow, Burn, and Make Me New” by Chad Perman
by The Editors
Mike Nichols: 1931-2014
by Dan Callahan

Interview: Peter Biskind Revisits “Easy Riders, Raging Bulls”
by Susan Wloszczyna
In Theaters

Page 1
Page 2
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Page 7
Page 8
Page 9
Born in China
Burn Motherfucker, Burn!
Free Fire
Sand Castle
Slack Bay
The Happiest Day in the Life of Olli Mäki
The Promise
The Student
Tramps
Unforgettable
Guerrilla
A Quiet Passion
Chasing Trane: The John Coltrane Documentary
Heal the Living
Jeremiah Tower: The Last Magnificent
Little Boxes
My Entire High School Sinking Into the Sea
Norman
Sandy Wexler
Spark: A Space Tail
The Fate of the Furious
The Lost City of Z
Tommy’s Honour
Aftermath
All These Sleepless Nights
Colossal
Gifted
Going in Style
Graduation
Mine
Queen of the Desert
Salt and Fire
Smurfs: The Lost Village
The Assignment
The Ticket
The Void
Their Finest
Win It All
Your Name
All This Panic
Carrie Pilby
Cézanne et Moi
David Lynch: The Art Life
Five Came Back
Ghost in the Shell
God Knows Where I Am
Live Cargo
The Blackcoat’s Daughter
The Death of Louis XIV
The Discovery
The Zookeeper’s Wife
American Anarchist
Bokeh
CHiPS
Dig Two Graves
I Called Him Morgan
I, Olga Hepnarova
Power Rangers
Prevenge
The Most Hated Woman in America
Wilson
Life
The Boss Baby
A Woman, a Part
After the Storm
Beauty and the Beast
Deidra & Laney Rob a Train
Mean Dreams
Song to Song
T2 Trainspotting
The Belko Experiment
The Devil’s Candy
Frantz
Brimstone
Burning Sands
Cries from Syria
Kong: Skull Island
My Scientology Movie
Personal Shopper
Raw
Suntan
The Other Half
The Ottoman Lieutenant
The Sense of an Ending
This Beautiful Fantastic
Movie Reviews
Reviews
Great Movies
Blogs
Roger Ebert’s Journal
Chaz’s Journal
MZS
Channels
Balder and Dash
Demanders
Thumbnails
Far Flungers
Interviews
Festivals & Awards
Sundance
Life Itself
Cannes
Tributes to Roger
Letters
Opening Shots Project
Contributors
Roger Ebert
Chaz Ebert
Matt Zoller Seitz
Brian Tallerico
Nick Allen
Matt Fagerholm
Simon Abrams
Godfrey Cheshire
Glenn Kenny
Christy Lemire
Sheila O’Malley
Peter Sobczynski
Susan Wloszczyna
Ali Arikan
Angelica Jade Bastien
Steven Boone
Danny Bowes
Dan Callahan
Monica Castillo
Seongyong Cho
Olivia Collette
Brian Doan
Mark Dujsik
Steve Erickson
Sam Fragoso
Noah Gittell
Ian Grey
Scott Jordan Harris
Odie Henderson
Wael Khairy
Ben Kenigsberg
Joyce Kulhawik
Donald Liebenson
Craig D. Lindsey
Laya Maheshwari
Patrick Z. McGavin
Nell Minow
Michael Mirasol
Jana Monji
Omer M. Mozaffar
Lisa Nesselson
Michał Oleszczyk
Jessica Ritchey
Barbara Scharres
Krishna Bala Shenoi
Collin Souter
Bill Stamets
Scout Tafoya
ReBecca Theodore-Vachon
Katherine Tulich
Gerardo Valero
Pablo Villaça
Anath White
Alissa Wilkinson
Alan Zilberman
© Copyright 2017,
Ebert Digital LLC
About the Site
Contact Us
Advertise with Us
Privacy Policy
Terms of Use
Movies by Letter
Cast and Crew
Like Us on Facebook
Follow Us on Twitter
RSS Feeds

Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on CARNAL KNOWLEDGE

POMPEII

Pompeii (film)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the 2014 film. For the BBC docudrama, see Pompeii: The Last Day. For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation).
Pompeii

Theatrical release poster
Directed by
Paul W. S. Anderson
Produced by
Jeremy Bolt
Paul W. S. Anderson
Robert Kulzer
Don Carmody
Screenplay by
Janet Scott Batchler
Lee Batchler
Michael Robert Johnson
Starring
Kit Harington
Emily Browning
Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje
Keifer Sutherland
Carrie-Ann Moss
Jared Harris
Jessica Lucas
Sasha Roiz
Joe Pingue
Music by
Clinton Shorter
Cinematography
Glen MacPherson
Edited by
Michelle Conroy
Production
company
Constantin Film
Impact Pictures
FilmDistrict
TriStar Pictures
Don Carmody Productions (uncredited)
Summit Entertainment (uncredited)
Distributed by
United States:
Sony Pictures
International:
Lionsgate
Release date
February 18, 2014 (Buenos Aires)
February 21, 2014 (Canada & United States)
February 27, 2014 (Germany)
Running time
104 minutes[1]
Country
Germany
Canada
United States
Language
English
Budget
$80 million[2][3]
Box office
$117.8 million[4]
Pompeii is a 2014 3D romantic historical disaster film produced and directed by Paul W. S. Anderson.[5] It is an international co-production between the United States, Germany and Canada. Inspired by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 that destroyed Pompeii, a city of the Roman Empire, the film stars Kit Harington, Emily Browning, Carrie-Anne Moss, Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje, Jessica Lucas, with Jared Harris, and Kiefer Sutherland.
It premiered in France, Belgium, and Russia on February 19, 2014 and was released over the course of the next day in Argentina, Greece, Hungary, Italy and later in many major territories, including the United States, Canada, India, and Australia, The film was released in United States of America and Canada on February 21, 2014.[6][7] The film received generally negative reviews, particularly for its lack of originality and dialogue, though it received some praise for its visual effects and production values, which were considered to be historically accurate.

Contents  [hide] 
1
Plot
2
Cast
3
Production
4
Reception
4.1
Box office
4.2
Critical response
4.3
Accolades
5
Historical accuracy
6
References
7
External links

Plot[edit]
The film opens with scenes of plaster casts of the victims of Pompeii as quotes on the destruction are made.
In Britannia, 62 AD, a tribe of Celtic horsemen are brutally wiped out by Romans led by Corvus (Kiefer Sutherland). The only survivor is a boy named Milo, whose mother was killed personally by Corvus. The boy is captured by slave traders. Seventeen years later, in Londinium in 79 A.D., a slave owner named Graecus (Joe Pingue) watches a class of gladiators battle. He is unimpressed until he sees the grown Milo (Kit Harington), a talented gladiator the crowds call “the Celt”. Milo is soon brought to Pompeii with his fellow slaves. On the road, they see a horse fall while drawing a carriage carrying Cassia (Emily Browning), returning after a year in Rome, and her servant Ariadne (Jessica Lucas). Milo kills the horse to end its suffering and Cassia is drawn to him. Cassia is the daughter of the city governor Severus (Jared Harris) and his wife Aurelia (Carrie-Anne Moss). Severus is hoping to have the new Emperor Titus invest in plans to rebuild Pompeii but Cassia warns him of Rome becoming more corrupt. A servant named Felix (Dalmar Abuzeid) takes Cassia’s horse Vires for a ride only to be swallowed up when a quake from Mount Vesuvius opens up the ground under him.
In Pompeii, Milo soon develops a rivalry with Atticus (Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje), a champion gladiator who, by Roman law, will be given his freedom after he earns one more victory. The gladiators are shown off at a party where Corvus, now a Senator, tells Severus the Emperor will not invest in his plans but he himself will. It is revealed Cassia left Rome to escape Corvus’s advances. When an earthquake causes some horses to become anxious, Milo helps calm one down. He then takes Cassia on a ride, telling her that they cannot be together. Returning to the villa, Corvus is ready to kill Milo (not recognizing him from the village massacre) but Cassia pleads for his life. Milo is lashed for his actions and Atticus admits respect for his rival as they prepare to face each other at the upcoming festival.
In the Amphitheatre of Pompeii, to punish Milo, Corvus orders him killed in the first battle and wicked trainer Bellator (Currie Graham) convinces Graecus to sacrifice Atticus as well. The two men, and other gladiators, are chained to rocks as other gladiators come out as Roman soldiers, to recreate Corvus’s victory over the Celts. Working together, Milo and Atticus survive the battle; Atticus realizes the Romans will never honor his freedom. During the battle, Corvus forces Cassia to agree to marry him by threatening to have her family killed for supposed treason against the Emperor. When Milo and Atticus win, Cassia defies Corvus by holding a “thumbs-up” for them to live and he has her taken to the villa to be locked up. Claiming an earthquake is a sign from Vulcan, Corvus has his officer Proculus (Sasha Roiz) fight Milo one-on-one. Their battle is interrupted when Mount Vesuvius erupts, creating massive tremors that cause the arena to collapse, sending Milo and Proculus crashing to the dungeons. Milo opens up the gates to allow his fellow gladiators a chance to attack; Proculus escapes while the gladiators kill Bellator. Seeing Corvus fallen under a collapsed beam, Severus tries to kill him, but Corvus stabs him and escapes.
The eruption quickly darkens the sky and causes flaming debris to rain down upon the city as the populace tries to flee to the harbor. One fireball destroys and sinks a ship, killing the escaping Graecus. Aurelia tells Milo that Cassia is at the villa before dying. Milo races to the villa and manages to save Cassia, but Ariadne is killed when the villa collapses into the Mediterranean Sea. Corvus and Proculus kill civilians blocking their path to safety. Atticus tries to reach the harbor, but a tsunami created by the volcano smashes into the city, destroying the harbour and the outer walls and smashing several ships. In the ensuing chaos, Atticus saves a mother and her young daughter, the trio running safely into the inner city as a ship brought in by the tsunami blocks the water from flooding the inner walls. Reuniting with Atticus, Milo suggests searching the arena for horses to escape. As the gladiators face Roman soldiers at the arena, Cassia sees to the bodies of her parents, only to be abducted by Corvus. Atticus has Milo chase after the chariot carrying the two while he faces off against Proculus. In the following duel, Atticus is mortally wounded, but he manages to break the blade and uses it to kill Proculus.
Milo chases Corvus across the city, both barely avoiding fireballs and collapsing roads and buildings. Cassia manages to free herself with a splinter before the chariot crashes into the Temple of Apollo. Milo and Corvus duel as a fireball destroys the temple. Cassia chains Corvus to a building as Milo declares that his gods are coming to punish the Senator. Milo and Cassia ride off as a pyroclastic surge races down the volcano’s slopes and into the city, incinerating Corvus. As the surge approaches the arena, Atticus proudly meets his fate and proclaims that he dies a free man before the surge consumes him. At the city outskirts, the horse throws off Milo and Cassia. Milo tells Cassia to leave alone, realising the horse isn’t fast enough to carry them both. Instead, she sends the horse off, not wanting to spend her last moments running as she knows that they will not survive or outrun the surge. Milo kisses Cassia as the surge engulfs them. The last shot is of the duo’s petrified bodies, locked in an eternal embrace.
Cast[edit]
Kit Harington as Milo, a gladiator. He is good with horses and he avenges his family.[8]
Dylan Schombing as young Milo
Emily Browning as Cassia[9]
Kiefer Sutherland as Senator Quintas Attius Corvus[10]
Carrie-Anne Moss as Aurelia
Jared Harris as Severus[11]
Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje as Atticus[12]
Jessica Lucas as Ariadne[13]
Joe Pingue as Graecus
Currie Graham as Bellator
Sasha Roiz as Marcus Proculus
Dalmar Abuzeid as Felix
Jean-Francois Lachapelle as Milo’s Father
Rebecca Eady as Milo’s Mother
Dinesh Singh as Koyochi
Nimish Kelkar as Jambola
Production[edit]
The film was shot in Toronto, Canada from March to July 2013,[14] primarily at Cinespace Film Studios’ Kipling Avenue facility. Constantin Film and Don Carmody Productions formerly selected Cinespace as a shooting locale for Resident Evil: Retribution and The Mortal Instruments: City of Bones.[15]
Leading man Kit Harington underwent a gruelling training regimen for the film in order to bulk up for the role. Harington stated he had “wanted to do a body transformation for something — it was one of those processes that I had never really done before…I became obsessed with it. To the point where I was going to the gym three times a day for six days a week. I was becoming exhausted. So the trainer stepped in and said, ‘Look, you don’t need to go through all of this. This is body dysmorphia now.”[16]
Pompeii was the fourth time that director Anderson used 3D cameras in his films, the first being Resident Evil: Afterlife in 2010. Resident Evil producers Jeremy Bolt and Don Carmody reunited with Anderson for the film. FilmDistrict bought the distribution rights in the US, and because of Sony’s relationship with the filmmakers, they chose to release the film with TriStar Pictures.[17] Summit Entertainment, who released Anderson’s The Three Musketeers, handled distribution sales outside of Germany and the US (through Lionsgate).
Reception[edit]
Box office[edit]
Pompeii grossed ten million in its opening weekend, finishing in third, against strong competition from The Lego Movie.[18] As of June 30, 2014, the film has grossed $23.2 million in North America and $78.6 in other territories for a worldwide total of $117.8 million.[4]
The film won the Academy of Canadian Cinema and Television’s Golden Screen Award for 2014 as the year’s top-grossing Canadian film.[19]
Critical response[edit]
Pompeii received generally negative reviews from critics, with major criticism on the acting and lack of originality. Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 28%, based on 145 reviews, with the site’s consensus reading, “This big-budget sword-and-sandal adventure lacks the energy and storytelling heft to amount to more than a guilty pleasure.”[20] On Metacritic, the film has an aggregate score of 39 out of 100, based on 33 critics, indicating “generally unfavorable reviews”.[21]
Audiences surveyed by CinemaScore gave the film a “lukewarm” B grade approval rating.[22] Some critics were rather favorable as shown by Vulture.com’s review which summarized the film as “…not a particularly original story, but it gallops along at a nice clip, with the good guys appropriately gallant and breathless and the bad guys appropriately smug and snarly… And whether it’s elaborate gladiatorial battles or a chariot chase through a burning city, Anderson directs with precision, rhythm, and ruthlessness – he has an eye and an ear for violence, for the visceral impact of a kill. At his best, he creates action sequences in which you feel anything might happen, even though you usually know how they’ll turn out. And the ones in Pompeii are more engaging than those of any superhero movie I saw last year… Meanwhile, the disaster renders the villains even pettier, and the devoted lovers even more romantic. That is all as it should be. From Bulwer-Lytton to Leone, the Pompeii story has never not been schlock: It ain’t the Bible, and it ain’t Homer. In this gorgeous, silly, exciting new version, it finds its level. Pompeii 3-D wants merely to entertain. And it does, proudly.”[23]
Accolades[edit]
Award
Date of ceremony
Category
Recipient(s)
Result
Ref(s)
Golden Raspberry Awards
February 21, 2015
Worst Supporting Actor
Kiefer Sutherland
Nominated
[24]
Golden Screen Award: Feature Film
March 1, 2015
Achievement in Art Direction, Achievement in Costume Design, Achievement in Overall Sound, Achievement in Sound Editing, Achievement in Visual Effects
Pompeii
Won
[19][25]

Historical accuracy[edit]
The film relies heavily on the works of Pliny the Younger in its historical construction. The film starts with Pliny the Younger’s famous quote, in which he states, “You could hear the shrieks of women, the wailing of infants, and the shouting of men; some were calling their parents, others their children or their wives, trying to recognize them by their voices. People bewailed their own fate or that of their relatives, and there were some who prayed for death in their terror of dying. Many besought the aid of the gods, but still more imagined there were no gods left, and that the universe was plunged into eternal darkness for evermore.”[26] Anderson became enamored of his writings, particularly their near fantastical element and their eloquence, whose influence can be seen throughout the film in the destruction of Pompeii.[27]
The depiction of the eruption is based on eruptions which occurred all over the world over the last ten years. Anderson cites the volcanic eruption of Mount Etna in Italy and various eruptions of Japanese volcanoes as specific examples of volcanic eruptions which the production crew observed through footage which has been captured on film.[27] Furthermore, Anderson wanted to portray the lightning which is often seen in the ash cloud above eruptions, as he had never seen it portrayed before and he felt it was both magnificent and very terrifying. The animation team was so concerned with realism in the eruption that they would always have real photographs and footage of real eruptions visible to them on separate screens as they put together the eruption of Mount Vesuvius for the film.[27] Claims from Rosaly Lopes, a vulcanologist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, support Anderson’s work, stating that the film “realistically captured the earthquakes that preceded the eruption, the explosions and the pyroclastic flows of hot ash and gas that buried the city and its residents.”[28]
The construction of the city was based on the actual ruins of Pompeii. To ensure complete accuracy, any shots of the ancient city would be built upon existing footage of the ruins. Anderson states, “we would do a real helicopter shot over the ruins of the city so that we knew we were getting the layout of the city correct…Then we would project a computer-generated image over the top of the real photography… That is how we got the architecture of the city precise.”[27] Sarah Yeomans, an archaeologist at USC who has spent much of her life studying the city of Pompeii, further supports the accuracy of the city’s recreation. She praises the attention to details such as the raised paving stones in the streets and the political graffiti on the buildings, as well as the amphitheatre where gladiatorial combat takes place.[28]
Anderson has described other aspects of the film as being less rigorously historical. For example, he states that the time of the events was compacted in order to keep the intensity levels high. His portrayal of some aspects of the eruption, in particular the inclusion of fireballs raining from the sky, were included for dramatic effect rather than historical accuracy.[27] He also received minor criticism from Yeomans for his portrayal of women, who would not have been seen alone in town, involved in political affairs, or wearing the revealing clothes they wore in the film.[28] Anderson portrayed these women in such a way in order to conform to modern social norms. The biggest historical inaccuracy are the characters themselves, all of whom are fictional. Anderson found inspiration for these characters in real people, taking the plaster casts of the “twin lovers” of Pompeii for Milo and Cassia, and finding inspiration for Atticus in the casts of the cowering man. Anderson said he received approval from every vulcanologist and historian he has shown the movie to, having received “high marks for both scientific and historical accuracy”, which is what the team was striving for.[27]
References[edit]
Jump up
^ “POMPEII (12A)”. Entertainment One. British Board of Film Classification. February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
Jump up
^ Ryan Faughnder (February 20, 2014). “‘Lego Movie’ to block newcomers ‘Pompeii’ and ‘3 Days to Kill'”. Los Angeles Times. to the tune of $80 million
Jump up
^ “Pompeii – Box Office Data, DVD and Blu-ray Sales, Movie News, Cast and Crew Information”. The Numbers. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
^
Jump up to:
a b “Pompeii (2014)”. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
Jump up
^ Sandy Schaefer (September 18, 2012). “Paul W.S. Anderson To Helm ‘Pompeii'”. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
Jump up
^ Pamela McClintock (9 April 2013). “Paul W.S. Anderson’s ‘Pompeii’ Will Flow Into Theaters in February 2014”.
Jump up
^ “Pompeii to release worldwide including India on February 21”. IANS. Biharprabha News. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
Jump up
^ “Kit Harington Will Face Paul W.S. Anderson’s Pompeii”. November 13, 2012. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
Jump up
^ Peter Dimak (10 April 2013). “FilmDistrict lands on POMPEII”.
Jump up
^ Borys Kit (2013-03-20). “Kiefer Sutherland to Play Villain in Disaster Movie ‘Pompeii’ (Exclusive)”.
Jump up
^ Jen yamato (March 13, 2013). “Paul W.S. Anderson’s 3D ‘Pompeii’ Adds Jared Harris”.
Jump up
^ Hugh Armitage (Apr 8, 2013). “‘Lost’ star Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje joins Kit Harington movie ‘Pompeii'”.
Jump up
^ “Jessica Lucas Joins Paul W.S. Anderson’s Pompeii”. April 8, 2013.
Jump up
^ “In Production in Toronto as of July 5, 2013” (PDF). Toronto Film, Television and Digital Media Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-30. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
Jump up
^ “Cinespace signs deal for Pompeii”. January 31, 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-02-04.
Jump up
^ Jennifer Vineyard (2014-02-14). “Kit Harington Dysmorphia Pompeii”. Archived from the original on 2014-03-07.
Jump up
^ Peter Dimako (10 April 2013). “FilmDistrict lands on POMPEII”. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
Jump up
^ Ray Subers (February 23, 2014). “Weekend Report: ‘LEGO’ Obliterates ‘3 Days,’ ‘Pompeii'”.
^
Jump up to:
a b “Academy to recognize TV with Golden Screen Awards”. PlayBack, February 4, 2015.
Jump up
^ “Pompeii (2014)”. Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved 2014-05-02.
Jump up
^ “Pompeii Reviews”. Metacritic. Retrieved 2014-04-30.
Jump up
^ Pamela McClintock (2014-02-22). “Box Office: ‘Lego’ Tops Friday With $7.3 Million, Destroys ‘Pompeii,’ ‘3 Days to Kill'”.
Jump up
^ “Movie Review: Pompeii”. Vulture. Retrieved 2015-03-09.
Jump up
^ “RAZZIES Celebrate 35 Years of Worst Achievements in Film with Inclusive Nominee List …and New “Redeemer” Award”. Golden Raspberry Award Foundation. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
Jump up
^ “Canadian Screen Awards”. Academy of Canadian Cinema & Television. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
Jump up
^ “The Destruction of Pompeii, 79 AD”, EyeWitness to History, www.eyewitnesstohistory.com (1999).
^
Jump up to:
a b c d e f Rojas, Alejandro (Feb 21, 2014). “Interview With Paul W. S. Anderson, Pompeii Director, on the Film’s Scientific and Historical Accuracy”. The Huffington Post. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
^
Jump up to:
a b c Lewis, Tanya. “Lava Bombs and Tsunamis! How Accurate Is ‘Pompeii’ Movie?” LiveScience. TechMedia Network, 20 Feb. 2014. Web. 04 Mar. 2014.
External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Pompeii (film)
Official website
Pompeii at the Internet Movie Database
Pompeii at Box Office Mojo
Pompeii at Rotten Tomatoes
Pompeii at Metacritic
[hide]
vte
Films directed by Paul W. S. Anderson

Shopping (1994)Mortal Kombat (1995)Event Horizon (1997)Soldier (1998)Resident Evil (2002)Alien vs. Predator (2004)Death Race (2008)Resident Evil: Afterlife (2010)The Three Musketeers (2011)Resident Evil: Retribution (2012)Pompeii (2014)Resident Evil: The Final Chapter (2016)
Categories: 2014 filmsEnglish-language filmsPompeii in popular culture2014 3D films2010s action films2010s adventure filmsCanadian filmsGerman filmsAmerican filmsAmerican 3D filmsAmerican epic filmsAmerican action filmsCanadian 3D filmsGerman 3D filmsCanadian action filmsGerman action filmsCanadian epic filmsGerman epic filmsCanadian disaster filmsFilms about deathFilms about volcanoesFilms directed by Paul W. S. AndersonFilms set in the 1st centuryFilms set in the Roman EmpireFilms set in the United KingdomFilms set in ancient RomeFilms set in CampaniaFilms about slaveryFilms shot in TorontoEntertainment One filmsConstantin Film filmsFilmDistrict filmsSummit Entertainment filmsTriStar Pictures filmsLions Gate Entertainment filmsFilms about tsunamis

Navigation menu
Not logged in
Talk
Contributions
Create account
Log in
Article
Talk
Read
Edit
View history
Search

Main page
Contents
Featured content
Current events
Random article
Donate to Wikipedia
Wikipedia store
Interaction
Help
About Wikipedia
Community portal
Recent changes
Contact page
Tools
What links here
Related changes
Upload file
Special pages
Permanent link
Page information
Wikidata item
Cite this page
Print/export
Create a book
Download as PDF
Printable version
In other projects
Wikiquote

Languages
العربية
Azərbaycanca
Čeština
Deutsch
Español
فارسی
Français
한국어
Հայերեն
Bahasa Indonesia
Italiano
Latina
Magyar
Nederlands
日本語
Polski
Português
Română
Русский
Suomi
Svenska
தமிழ்
Türkçe
Українська
中文
Edit links
This page was last modified on 22 April 2017, at 23:09.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
Privacy policy
About Wikipedia
Disclaimers
Contact Wikipedia
Developers
Cookie statement
Mobile view

Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on POMPEII

TROY

Troy (film)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Troy

Theatrical release poster
Directed by
Wolfgang Petersen
Produced by
Wolfgang Petersen
Diana Rathbun
Colin Wilson
Screenplay by
David Benioff
Based on
Iliad
by Homer
Starring
Brad Pitt
Eric Bana
Orlando Bloom
Music by
James Horner
Cinematography
Roger Pratt
Edited by
Peter Honess
Production
company
Warner Bros. Pictures, Helena Productions, Latina Pictures, Radiant Productions, Plan B Entertainment, Nimar Studios
Distributed by
Warner Bros. Pictures
Release date
May 14, 2004
Running time
162 minutes
196 minutes (Director’s cut)
Country
Malta
United Kingdom
United States
Language
English
Budget
$175.000.000
Box office
$497.409.852[1]
Troy is a 2004 American period action-adventure film written by David Benioff and directed by Wolfgang Petersen. The film features an ensemble cast led by Brad Pitt, Eric Bana, and Orlando Bloom. It is loosely based[2] on Homer’s Iliad, though the film narrates the entire story of the decade-long Trojan War – condensed into little more than a couple of weeks – rather than just the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon in the ninth year. Achilles leads his Myrmidons along with the rest of the Greek army invading the historical city of Troy, defended by Hector’s Trojan army. The end of the film (the sack of Troy) is not taken from the Iliad, but rather from Virgil’s Aeneid as the Iliad concludes with Hector’s death and funeral.
Troy made more than 73% of its revenues outside the U.S. Eventually, Troy made over $497 million worldwide, temporarily placing it in the #60 spot of top box office hits of all time. It was the 8th highest-grossing film of 2004.

Contents  [hide] 
1
Plot
2
Cast
3
Production
4
Music
5
Director’s cut
6
Reception
6.1
Commercial performance
6.2
Critical reception
6.3
Box office totals
7
Awards and nominations
8
See also
9
References
10
Further reading
11
External links

Plot[edit]
In the late 12th Century BC, during the Trojan War, troops of King Agamemnon of Mycenae are ready to fight against the troops of Triopas of Thessaly, a battle only avoided when the great warrior Achilles defeats Thessaly’s champion in single combat. Meanwhile, Prince Hector of Troy and his younger brother Paris negotiate a peace treaty with Menelaus, King of Sparta. Paris, however, is having a secret love affair with Menelaus’ wife, Queen Helen, and smuggles her aboard their homebound vessel, enraging Hector. Upon learning of this, Menelaus meets with Agamemnon, his elder brother, and asks his help in taking Troy. Agamemnon, who has wanted to conquer Troy for a long time, agrees, since it will give him control of the Aegean Sea. On Nestor, King of Pylos’ advice, Agamemnon has Odysseus, King of Ithaca, persuade Achilles to join them. Achilles, who strongly dislikes Agamemnon, initially refuses, but eventually decides to go after his mother, Thetis, tells him that though he will die, he will be forever remembered.
In Troy, King Priam is dismayed when Hector and Paris bring Helen, but welcomes her as a guest and decides against sending her home, since Paris will likely follow her and be killed, choosing instead to meet the Greeks in open battle. The Greeks arrive shortly after and take the Trojan beach, mostly thanks to Achilles and his Myrmidons, among them his cousin Patroclus, who sack the temple of Apollo but allow Hector and the surviving Trojans to return to the city. Achilles claims Briseis, a priestess and the cousin of Paris and Hector, as a war trophy, but is angered when Agamemnon spitefully takes her from him and decides that he will not aid Agamemnon when they lay siege to Troy.
The Trojan and Greek armies meet outside the walls of Troy. During a parley, Paris offers to duel Menelaus personally for Helen’s hand in exchange for the city being spared. Agamemnon, intending to take the city regardless of the outcome, accepts. Menelaus wounds Paris and almost kills him, but is himself killed by Hector. In the ensuing battle, most of Agamemnon’s forces fall to Troy’s archers and Hector kills Ajax. On Odysseus’ insistence, Agamemnon gives the order to fall back. In order to keep their spirits up, he gives Briseis to the Greek soldiers for their amusement. Achilles saves her. Briseis sneaks into Achilles’s quarters later that night intent on killing him. However, Briseis quickly falls for him, giving up her virginity as Achilles seduces and sleeps with her. Achilles, realizing the war is a lost cause, resolves to leave Troy in the morning.
Despite Hector’s advice otherwise, Priam instructs him to retake the Trojan beach in the night and force the Greeks home. The attack brings the Greeks together and the Myrmidons enter the battle. Hector personally duels a man he believes to be Achilles and cuts his throat, only to discover it was actually Patroclus. Devastated, the armies agree to stop fighting for the day. Achilles is informed of his cousin’s death and vows revenge. Knowing of the coming retribution, Hector leads his wife, Andromache, to a secret tunnel beneath Troy and instructs her to take their child and any survivors she can out of the city should he die and the city fall.
The next day, Achilles arrives outside Troy and demands Hector come out. The two fight evenly for a while until Achilles wears Hector down and kills him, dragging his corpse back to the Trojan beach, straining his relationship with Briseis. Priam, in disguise, sneaks into the camp and meets with Achilles, imploring him to let him take Hector’s body back to Troy for a proper funeral. Ashamed of his actions, Achilles agrees and allows Briseis to return to Troy with Priam, promising a truce of twelve days so that Hector’s funeral rites may be held in peace. He also tells his men to return home without him.
Agamemnon declares that he will take Troy no matter what. Concerned that Agamemnon may lead them to destruction, Odysseus concocts a plan to get inside the city by having the Greeks build a gigantic wooden horse from their boat parts and abandon the Trojan beach, hiding their ships in a nearby cove to make it seem as if they have left. Priam orders the horse brought inside the city as a gift from the Gods, over Paris’ objections. A Trojan scout finds the hidden ships in the cove but is killed by the Greek archers before he can alert the city. That night, Greeks hiding inside the horse emerge and open the city gates for the Greek army, commencing the Sack of Troy. While Andromache and Helen are getting the Trojans to safety through the tunnel, Paris gives the Sword of Troy to Aeneas, instructing him to protect the Trojans and find them a new home. Glaucus is killed by Odysseus. Agamemnon kills Priam, and then Agamemnon finds Briseis and taunts her, and she kills him. Achilles fights his way through the city and finds Briseis, but is shot through the heel by Paris seeking revenge for the death of his brother, which makes him vulnerable. Paris puts several more arrows into Achilles’ chest until he finally collapses. With his dying breaths, Achilles implores Briseis to leave the city with Paris. They escape Troy before the Greeks find Achilles’ body. In the aftermath, with Troy finally taken, funerals are held for the slain and Odysseus personally cremates Achilles as the surviving Trojans head to Mount Ida.
Cast[edit]
Brad Pitt as Achilles
Eric Bana as Hector
Orlando Bloom as Paris
Diane Kruger as Helen
Brian Cox as Agamemnon
Peter O’Toole as Priam
Rose Byrne as Briseis
Saffron Burrows as Andromache
Brendan Gleeson as Menelaus
Sean Bean as Odysseus
Julian Glover as Triopas
James Cosmo as Glaucus
John Shrapnel as Nestor
Julie Christie as Thetis
Garrett Hedlund as Patroclus
Vincent Regan as Eudorus
Trevor Eve as Velior
Tyler Mane as Ajax
Nathan Jones as Boagrius
Frankie Fitzgerald as Aeneas
Production[edit]
The city of Troy was built in the Mediterranean island of Malta at Fort Ricasoli from April to June 2003.[3] Other important scenes were shot in Mellieħa, a small town in the north of Malta, and on the small island of Comino. The outer walls of Troy were built and filmed in Cabo San Lucas, Mexico.[4] Film production was disrupted for a period after Hurricane Marty affected filming areas.[5] The role of Briseis was initially offered to Bollywood superstar Aishwarya Rai, but she refused it because she was not comfortable doing the lovemaking scenes that were included. The role eventually went to Rose Byrne.
Music[edit]
Main article: Troy: Music from the Motion Picture
Composer Gabriel Yared originally worked on the score for Troy for over a year, having been hired by the director, Wolfgang Petersen. Tanja Carovska provided vocals on various portions of the music, as she later would on composer James Horner’s version of the soundtrack. However, the reactions at test screenings which used an incomplete version of the score were negative, and in less than a day Yared was off the project without a chance to fix or change his music.[6] James Horner composed a replacement score in about four weeks. He used Carovska’s vocals again and also included traditional Eastern Mediterranean music and brass instruments. Horner also collaborated with American singer-songwriter Josh Groban and lyricist Cynthia Weil to write an original song for the film’s end credits. The product of this collaboration, “Remember” was performed by Groban with additional vocals by Carovska.
The soundtrack for the film was released on May 11, 2004 through Reprise Records.
Director’s cut[edit]
Troy: Director’s Cut was screened at the 57th Berlin International Film Festival on February 17, 2007 and received a limited release in Germany in April 2007. Warner Home Video reportedly spent more than $1 million for the director’s cut, which includes “at least 1,000 new cuts” or almost 30 minutes extra footage (with a new running time of 196 minutes). The DVD was released on September 18, 2007 in the US. The score of the film was changed dramatically, with many of the female vocals being cut. An addition to the music is the use of Danny Elfman’s theme for Planet of the Apes during the pivotal fight between Hector and Achilles in front of the Gates of Troy.
Various shots were recut and extended. For instance, the love scene between Helen and Paris was reframed to include more nudity of Diane Kruger. The love scene between Achilles and Briseis is also extended. Only one scene was removed: the scene where Helen tends to the wound of Paris is taken out. The battle scenes were also extended, showing much more of Ajax’s bloody rampage on the Trojans during the initial attack by the Greek Army. Perhaps most significant was the sacking of Troy, barely present in the theatrical cut, but shown fully here, depicting the soldiers raping women and murdering babies. Characters were given more time to develop, specifically Priam and Odysseus, the latter being given a humorous introduction scene. Lastly, bookend scenes were added: the beginning being a soldier’s dog finding its dead master and the end including a sequence where the few surviving Trojans escape to Mount Ida. In one of the commentary sequences, the film’s writer, David Benioff, said that when it came to deciding whether to follow The Iliad or to do what was best for the film, they always decided with what was best for the film.
Reception[edit]
Commercial performance[edit]
When the film was completed, total production costs were approximately $175,000,000. This made Troy one of the most expensive films produced in modern cinema. It was screened out of competition at the 2004 Cannes Film Festival.[7]
Troy screenings have earned US$133,378,256 in the United States.[8]
Troy made more than 73%[8] of its revenues outside the U.S. Eventually, Troy made over US$497 million worldwide,[8] temporarily placing it in the #60 spot of top box office hits of all time. It was the 8th highest-grossing film of 2004 and currently is in the top 150 highest-grossing films of all time.
Critical reception[edit]
Troy was met with mixed reviews from critics. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds a rating of 54%, based on 221 reviews, with an average rating of 6/10. The site’s consensus reads, “A brawny, entertaining spectacle, but lacking emotional resonance.”[9] On Metacritic, the film has a score of 56 out of 100, based on 43 critics, indicating “mixed or average reviews”.[10]
Box office totals[edit]
Budget – $175,000,000[8]
Marketing cost – $50,000,000
Opening weekend gross (Domestic) – $46,865,412
Total domestic grosses – $133,378,256
Total overseas grosses – $364,031,596[8]
Total worldwide grosses – $497,409,852
Awards and nominations[edit]
Year
Award
Category
Result
2005
Academy Awards
Best Achievement in Costume Design – Bob Ringwood
Nominated
2008
Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films
Best DVD Special Edition Release (Director’s Cut: Ultimate Collector’s Edition)
Nominated
2005
ASCAP Film and Television Music Awards
Top Box Office Films – James Horner
Won
2005
Awards of the Japanese Academy
Best Foreign Film
Nominated
2004
Golden Schmoes Awards
Biggest Disappointment of the Year
Nominated
2004
Golden Schmoes Awards
Best Action Sequence of the Year (Hector vs Achilles)
Nominated
2004
Golden Trailer Awards
Best Music
Nominated
2004
Golden Trailer Awards
Summer 2004 Blockbuster (For “Greatest War”)
Nominated
2005
Harry Awards
Film Which Most Contributed to the Public Understanding and Appreciation of History
Nominated
2004
Irish Film and Television Awards
Best Supporting Actor in Film/TV – Peter O’Toole
Won
2005
London Critics Circle Film Awards
British Supporting Actor of the Year – Brian Cox
Nominated
2005
Motion Picture Sound Editors
Best Sound Editing in Foreign Features
Nominated
2005
MTV Movie Awards
Best Male Performance – Brad Pitt
Nominated
2005
MTV Movie Awards
Best Fight – Brad Pitt,Eric Bana
Nominated
2004
Teen Choice Awards
Choice Movie Actor – Drama/Action Adventure: Brad Pitt
Won
2004
Teen Choice Awards
Choice Movie – Drama/Action Adventure
Nominated
2004
Teen Choice Awards
Choice Movie Actor – Drama/Action Adventure: Orlando Bloom
Nominated
2004
Teen Choice Awards
Choice Movie Fight/Action Sequence
Nominated
2004
Teen Choice Awards
Choice Breakout Movie Star – Male: Garrett Hedlund
Nominated
2004
The Stinkers Bad Movie Awards
Worst Actor – Brad Pitt
Nominated
2004
The Stinkers Bad Movie Awards
Worst Fake Accent: Male – Brad Pitt}
Nominated
2005
Visual Effects Society Awards
Outstanding Supporting Visual Effects in a Motion Picture
Nominated
2004
World Soundtrack Awards
Best Original Song Written for Film (“Remember Me”)
Nominated
2005
World Stunt Awards
Best Fight
Nominated
2005
World Stunt Awards
Best Stunt Coordinator and/or 2nd Unit Director – Simon Crane
Nominated
2005
Yoga Awards
Worst Foreign Actor – Brad Pitt
Won

See also[edit]
Epic film
Greek mythology in popular culture
List of book-based war films (wars before 1775)
List of films based on poems
List of historical

Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on TROY

AIRLESS BICYCLE TIRE

Fox News
Fox Business
Fox News Go
Fox News Radio
Fox Nation
Fox News Insider
Login
Fox News
Auto

Home
Video
Politics
U.S.
Opinion
Business
Entertainment
Tech
Science
Health
Travel
Lifestyle
World
On Air

Close
– PROGRAMMING ALERT –
STARTING TOMORROW: ‘TUCKER CARLSON TONIGHT’ AT 8 PM ET; ‘THE FIVE’ AT 9 PM ET ON FOX NEWS CHANNEL

AUTO HOME
THE CLASSICS
TRUCKS
RACING
SAFETY
PERFORMANCE
AUTO TECH
Auto Tech
Bridgestone launching ‘airless’ bicycle tires in 2019
Published April 21, 2017 FoxNews.com
Facebook
Twitter
Email
Print

 (Bridgestone)
Pump it up? You won’t really need to, soon.
Bridgestone has revealed a new “airless” bicycle tire that it plans to put on sale by 2019.

Expand / Contract
(Bridgestone)
The non-pneumatic features a ring of flexible composite spokes — connected to a smaller, solid inner hub — that both hold its shape and provide cushioning on par with an air-filled tube. A conventionally-shaped tread is mounted to the outside.

A Message from Dell
Innovators, Artists and Superheroes: CES 2017 in Review
CES 2017 is over, and we’ll definitely miss its exciting mix of groundbreaking ideas and innovations. View the highlights here.

Bridgestone has been developing “tweels” intended for automobiles for several years, but has yet to commercialize any of the designs. Polaris currently sells an ATV with flat-proof tires of a similar design that’s available to military and consumer users, while Michelin offers one for small commercial vehicles.
Projected pricing and size availability for the Bridgestone bicycle tires have not yet been determined.
———-
POLARIS AIRLESS TIRES WON’T GO FLAT:

 
More from Fox News

Venezuela Seizes GM, Warning Sign to U.S. Companies?

Dad’s response to daughter’s pants-wetting accident at school goes viral

Top 10 cars stuck on dealer lots that are ripe for deals

Abandoned Nevada brothel set to reopen with Raiders theme

A look at some of the best cars at the New York Auto Show

Butcher puts nude woman in his display case for ‘social experiment’

Trending in Auto
1 Ford tested an all-wheel-drive Mustang in 1965
2 Bridgestone launching ‘airless’ bicycle tires in 2019
3 Ford Mustang found in Mexican junkyard is from ‘Bullitt,’ expert confirms
4 Top 10 cars stuck on dealer lots that are ripe for deals
5 2017 Subaru Impreza review

See all Trends

Auto Rates

 
Sponsored Stories

Here Are Our Top 10 Cars for 2016
Kelley Blue Book
Ad Content by
 
Sponsored Stories You May Like

If You Suffer From Callused Feet, Try This Amazing Trick!
Vital Updates

Stop Eating These ‘Digestive Destroyers’
Probiotic America

Need a Family Car Fast? These Are the 10 Best Under…
Kelley Blue Book

15 Worst States to Live in During Retirement
Kiplinger
Ad Content by
 
Sponsored Stories
If You Suffer From Callused Feet, Try This Amazing Trick! Vital Updates
Stop Eating These ‘Digestive Destroyers’ Probiotic America
15 Worst States to Live in During Retirement Kiplinger
Why is FDA favoring real cigarettes over fake ones? TheHill.com
Need a Family Car Fast? These Are the 10 Best Under $15,000 Kelley Blue Book
Say Goodbye to iPhone. No One Guessed Apple’s Next Product The Motley Fool
More from Fox News
What a war with North Korea would look like Fox News Insider- Video
9 outrageous fire pits you need in your backyard Fox News
Hunters Kill 15-Foot, 800-Pound Alligator Believed to Have Attacked… Fox Nation
This is the best cheese to use on homemade pizza Fox News
Where did all those North Korea military medals come from? Fox News Politics – Video
Top 10 cars stuck on dealer lots that are ripe for deals Fox News
Ad Content by

 
Watch Now…

Inside MS-13

Why MS-13 is more dangerous than ISIS

A look at some of the best cars at the New York Auto Show

Why Nobody Wants to Rebuild an Automatic Transmission
NESN.com

7 Motorcycles That Are a Huge Waste of Money
Grunge.com

20 Cars That Can Take You to 300,000 Miles
Cheatsheet.com

What Most People Don’t Know About The Chevy Camaro
Grunge.com

9 Facts You Don’t Know About the VW Beetle
Grunge.com

How to Clean Your Interior Windshield Glass
Autoblog.com

Watch 4,000-Horsepower Corvette Take Flight in a 200mph Wheelie
Autoblog.com

Bugatti’s New Bicycle Costs More Than a BMW M3
Mensjournal.com

10 Cars With the Most Horrible Engines of All Time
Cheatsheet.com

The Apple of the Auto Industry Isn’t Tesla, It’s Jeep
Autoblog.com

Sections
Home
Video
Politics
U.S.
Opinion
Entertainment
Tech
Science
Health
Travel
Lifestyle
World
Sports
Weather
On Air
Tools
Live Video
Newsletters
Alerts
Podcasts
Radio
Apps & Products
About
Careers
College Students
Fox Around the World
Advertise With Us
New Terms of Use (What’s New)
New Privacy Policy
Ad Choices
Help
Email Newsroom
Media Relations
Closed Captioning Policy
Follow
Facebook
Twitter
Google+
Instagram
RSS
Newsletters
Fox News
Back to Top
This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. ©2017 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.

Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on AIRLESS BICYCLE TIRE

TINY FEY AND THE INTERNET

EDITION
US

NEWS
POLITICS
ENTERTAINMENT
LIFESTYLE
IMPACT
VOICES
VIDEO
ALL SECTIONS

ENTERTAINMENT 12/07/2016 11:00 am ET | Updated Mar 24, 2017
Tina Fey Is Worried About What The Internet Is Doing To Society
The internet allows people to be “awful to each other without having to be in the same room,” Fey says.

By Maxwell Strachan

George Pimentel via Getty Images
Tina Fey doesn’t like how the internet has altered how we treat one another. 
3.8k

120
A little less than two weeks after Donald J. Trump was elected President of the United States, Tina Fey and David Letterman, two giants of the comedy world, sat down at Circo in Manhattan to discuss, well, a bit of everything. 
In the interview, which was published Wednesday in conjunction with The Hollywood Reporter’s annual Power 100 breakfast, Fey talked parenting, and friends, and bedtimes, and Lorne Michaels. But the meat of the article lay in breaking down the world we find ourselves in. A world that, in Fey’s eyes, feels a bit like a slowly climbing rollercoaster that has suddenly started to fall backwards.
I definitely came out of last month feeling misogyny is much more real than two years ago.
Tina Fey
 “It feels like we were on the precipice of things getting pretty good, and now we’re in a bit of a throwback moment. I definitely came out of last month feeling misogyny is much more real than two years ago,” Fey told Letterman.
“But the thing I worry about [more] than actual human interaction is the internet,” she added. “Because that’s just despicable: people just being able to be awful to each other without having to be in the same room. It’s metastasizing now, thanks to our glorious president-elect who can’t muster the dignity of a seventh-grader. It’s so easy for people to abuse each other and to abandon all civility.”
Anyone who has spent significant time interacting with people on the internet can attest to what Fey is talking about. Online, it is much easier to be harsh and biting online. Online, it is easier to voice your opinion without having to listen to the retort. To spew hate without consideration for those it affects.
The internet doesn’t provide us the empathy-generation machine that real-life interaction does. In person, face to face, it is harder, if not impossible, for humans to cut themselves off from the divergent opinions around them. Real-life interaction provides us with one of the most wonderful things about our species: the ability to feel compassion. Too often, the internet takes that sense of compassion away.
Fey and Letterman spoke as part of the leadup to The Hollywood Reporter honoring Fey with the Sherry Lansing Leadership Award, given to women who are pioneers in their industry. 

M. Tran via Getty Images

ALSO ON HUFFPOST
7 True Crime Docs To Watch On Netflix 7
Suggest a correction

Maxwell Strachan
Senior Editor, The Huffington Post
MORE:
Donald Trump Internet Tina Fey

  
by Taboola 
Sponsored Links 
You May Like

Cedar Rapids, Iowa: This Brilliant Company Is Disrupting a $200 Billion Industry
Provide Savings Insurance Quotes

Here’s Why Guys Are Obsessed With This Underwear…
The Weekly Brief | Mack Weldon

Cedar Rapids: This Meal Service is Cheaper Than Your Local Store
Home Chef

Reclusive Millionaire Warns Retirees: “Get Out Of Cash”
Stansberry Research

You’re In For A Big Surprise in 2017 If You Own A Home in Iowa
LendingTree Quotes

We Tried Bombas Socks. Here’s What Happened:
Business Insider | Bombas Socks

Around The Web
Powered By ZergNet

The Real-Life Tragic Story of Shania Twain
NickiSwift.com

Sneak Peek Inside the 100th Episode Celebration For ‘Scandal’
IMDb.com

Why Hollywood Won’t Cast John Cusack Anymore
Looper.com

CONVERSATIONS

TRENDING
The Real Reasons Why Marriages Fail — And How To Not Let Yours Suffer The Same Fate

Sweet And Easy Romantic Gestures That Show Your Spouse You Care

Trump Pivots Away From Base-Ten Numerical System

These Women Covered Their Bodies In Glitter To Make A Colorful Statement

Michael Moore Recalls The Time Bill O’Reilly Accosted Him On The Street

LendingTree

The Fastest Way To Pay Off $10,000 In Credit Card Debt
SUBSCRIBE TO & FOLLOW ENTERTAINMENT
THE spot for your favorite fan theories and the best Netflix recs. Learn more
Newsletter

1.12 M

136 K

477 K

Podcast
Add us on Snapchat

Tina Fey Is Worried About What The Internet Is Doing To Society

SUGGESTED FOR YOU
49 Photos That Show What Autism Looks Like

19 Pink Engagement Rings So Pretty, They’ll Make You Blush

The Gilded Age of Congress

Donald Trump Loves Signing Things

Donald Trump’s Walk of Fame Star Vandalized with Marker, ‘F*** Trump’ (PHOTO)
TMZ

WHAT’S HOT
Photo Series Shows How Two Moms Tandem Nurse Their Triplets And Toddler

U.S. Cities To Watch In 2017

Chris Pratt Says His Blue-Collar America Remark Was ‘Pretty Stupid’

Sarah Palin Just Single-Handedly Ruined Off-The-Shoulder Tops For Half Of America

It Only Took 7 Seconds For This Kylie Jenner Appearance To Get Really Awkward

Activist Kuki Gallmann Shot At Her Kenyan Ranch

GOP Rep Tells Mom Her Son On Medicaid Should Just Get A Better Job If He Wants Health Care

Furious South Koreans Blast ‘Ignorant’ Trump For ‘Distortion Of History’

Advertise RSS Careers FAQ
User Agreement Privacy Comment Policy About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Archive
Copyright © 2017 TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc.    “The Huffington Post” is a registered trademark of TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc. All rights reserved.
Part of HuffPost • HPMG News

Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on TINY FEY AND THE INTERNET

25 YEARS AFTER RODNEY KING

EDITION
US

NEWS
POLITICS
ENTERTAINMENT
LIFESTYLE
IMPACT
VOICES
VIDEO
ALL SECTIONS

Earl Ofari Hutchinson, Contributor
Earl Ofari Hutchinson is an author and political analyst
25 Years Later, Los Angeles Hasn’t Fully Recovered From The Rodney King Riots. Why?
Decades after flames engulfed the city, empty lots remain.
04/23/2017 09:54 am ET | Updated 1 hour ago

It has become a ritual with me. On the 10th, 20th, and now 25th anniversary of the L.A. riots, I do a press tour of several of the same burned out empty lots in South L.A. I preface the tour with a finger point at the empty lots, and ask, no challenge, with the question: “Why years after the riots these empty lots where thriving businesses once stood are still empty today.” I quickly point out that in those years―no, decades―many parts of Los Angeles from the westside to downtown have been virtually remade. Billions have been poured into the construction of glitzy, pricey, showy, and functional office buildings, retail stores, boutiques, restaurants, and hi-tech centers, and lite industry and manufacturing enterprises.
I watched buildings, stores and malls that I frequented instantly disappear from the landscape in a wall of flames.”
The building bonanza has resulted in thousands of new construction, entry level and professional jobs. In the process, it’s enriched the tax coffers of the city and surrounding cities. The lame excuse that there’s no economic incentive to build in South L.A won’t fly; residents spend millions on consumer goods and services, tens of thousands are well-to-do business professionals and tradespeople, and they repeatedly clamor for quality retail, restaurant and service business in South L.A. But the lots still remain empty.
While speaking with the press at the burned out lots, my mind continually goes back to those two fateful days at the end of April and the first day of May 1992. I ducked around police cordons and barricades. I cringed in fear and anxiety at the cackle of police gunfire and the non-stop roar of fire engines and sirens all around my house in South L.A. I choked, gagged on, and was blinded by the thick, acrid smoke that at times blotted out the sun and gave an eerie surreal Dante’s Hell feel to Los Angeles. I watched many Los Angeles Police Department officers stand by virtually helpless and disoriented as looters gleefully made mad dashes into countless stores. Their arms bulged with everything from clothes to furniture items. I watched an armada of police from every district throughout California and the nation, National Guard units and federal troops drive past my house with stony―even scared―looks on their faces, but their guns at ready.
I watched buildings, stores and malls that I frequented instantly disappear from the landscape in a wall of flames. Several friends who lived outside L.A. and were concerned about my safety implored me to leave my home in the middle of the riot area and stay with them until things blew over. I thanked them but I decided to stay put. As a journalist, I felt bound to observe and report first-hand the mass orgy of death and destruction that engulfed my South Los Angeles neighborhood during the two fateful days of the most destructive riot in U.S. history.
The warning signs that L.A. was a powder keg were there long before the Simi Valley jury (with no blacks) acquitted the four LAPD cops who beat Rodney King. There was the crushingly high poverty rate in South L.A.; a spiraling crime and drug epidemic; neighborhoods that were among the most racially balkanized in the nation; anger over the hand slap sentence for a Korean grocer who murdered a black teenage girl, LaTasha Harlins, in an altercation; and black-Korean tensions that had reached a boiling point. And above all, there was the bitter feeling toward an LAPD widely branded as the nation’s perennial poster police agency for brutality and racism.
This year, on the 25th anniversary of the King verdict and the L.A. riots, many still ask the incessant question: Can it happen again? The prophets, astrologers and psychics couldn’t answer a question like that with absolute certainty. But there are two hints that give both a “yes” and “no” answer to the question. The yes is the repeated questionable killings of young, unarmed African Americans by police and quasi-authority figures, such as Michael Brown, Ezell Ford, Eric Garner, and others both around the nation and in L.A. County specifically. This continues to toss the ugly glare on the always fragile, tenuous, and at times openly hostile relations between African Americans and the police. The other cause for wariness is conditions in South L.A. and other urban communities.
in 2005, on the fortieth anniversary of the other L.A. riots that ripped the nation, The Watts Riots, the L.A. chapter of the National Urban League and the United Way issued an unprecedented report on the State of Black L.A. The report called the conditions in South L.A. dismal, stating that Blacks still had higher school drop-out rates, greater homelessness, died younger and in greater numbers, were more likely to be jailed and serve longer sentences, and were far and away more likely to be victims of racial hate crimes than any other group in L.A. County. The report has not been updated, but even the most cursory drive through the old riot areas still shows that for many residents little has changed.
The L.A. riots are no longer the national and world symbol of American urban racial destruction, neglect and despair. But it’s is still a cautionary tale; a warning that in the Trump era, the poverty, violence and neglect that made the L.A. riots symbolic may not have totally evaporated twenty years after the flames. That will stay the case as long as the lots remain empty.

Earl Ofari Hutchinson is an author and political analyst. He is the author of the new ebook How the Democrats Can Win in The Trump Era (Amazon Kindle). He is an associate editor of New America Media. He is a weekly co-host of the Al Sharpton Show on Radio One. He is the host of the weekly Hutchinson Report on KPFK 90.7 FM Los Angeles and the Pacifica Network.
Related…
50 Years Later, These 8 Photos Of The Watts Riots Speak Volumes
25 Years After Rodney King, We Can’t Even Agree Whether It Was a ‘Riot’ or an ‘Uprising’
ALSO ON HUFFPOST
X

MORE:
U.S. News Hate Crimes Los Angeles Real Estate Los Angeles Police Department

  
by Taboola 
Sponsored Links 
You May Like

You’re In For A Big Surprise in 2017 If You Own A Home in Iowa
LendingTree Quotes

1 Perfect Photograph That Shows Each State’s Stereotypes
Frank151

Government Gives Iowa Homeowners Who Owe Less Than $300-625k A Once-In…
LowerMyBills

Cedar Rapids, Iowa: This Brilliant Company Is Disrupting a $200 Billion I…
Provide Savings Insurance Quotes

Their Brother Dies, Guess What They Did Next… After 15 Years Of Friendship, T…
WorldLifeStyle

A Chef’s Honest Review Of HelloFresh
Southern Plate For HelloFresh

Around The Web
Powered By ZergNet

Details Emerge on Melania’s Discontent as First Lady
Nypost.com

Exclusive Amazon Prime Releases to Catch Up on ASAP
Looper.com

Stars Who Haven’t Figured Out They Aren’t Famous Anymore
Looper.com

CONVERSATIONS

LendingTree

The Amazing VA Benefits Not Enough Vets Are Claiming
SUBSCRIBE TO & FOLLOW BLACK VOICES
Stay plugged in with the stories on black life and culture that matter. Learn more
Newsletter

1.14 M

340 K

477 K

Podcast
Add us on Snapchat

25 Years Later, Los Angeles Hasn’t Fully Recovered From The Rodney King Riots. Why?

SUGGESTED FOR YOU
What John Legend And Chrissy Teigen Learned In One Year Of Parenting

Stop Waiting To Go After The Things You Want

Twitter Account Dedicated To Trump’s Ties Makes ‘Yuge’ Fashion Statement

Here’s How Frequently Women Supreme Court Justices Are Interrupted By Men

Maria Borges Is The First African Cover Girl On Elle *This Century*

Advertise RSS Careers FAQ
User Agreement Privacy Comment Policy About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Archive
Copyright © 2017 TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc.    “The Huffington Post” is a registered trademark of TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc. All rights reserved.
Part of HuffPost MultiCultural/HPMG News

Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on 25 YEARS AFTER RODNEY KING