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Meet Your New Landlord: Wall Street

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Meet Your New Landlord: Wall Street

I’m interested in knowing if Millennials will have the same desire to buy homes so many before them have. Many are coming out school with large amounts of debt and living in expensive areas so home ownership is not within reach while they are young.

Meet Your New Landlord: Wall Street

Big investors transform suburban neighborhoods by buying up single-family homes and renting them out

SPRING HILL, Tenn.—When real-estate agent Don Nugent listed a three-bedroom, two-bath house here on Jo Ann Drive, offers came immediately, including a $208,000 one from a couple with a young child looking for their first home.

A competing bid was too attractive to pass up. American Homes 4 Rent , AMH 0.52% a public company that had been scooping up homes in the neighborhood, offered the same amount—but all cash, no inspection required.

Twelve hours after the house went on the market in April, the Agoura Hills, Calif.-based real-estate investment trust signed a contract. About a month later, it put the house back on the market, this time for rent, for $1,575 a month.

A new breed of homeowners has arrived in this middle-class suburb of Nashville and in many other communities around the country: big investment firms in the business of offering single-family homes for rent. Their appearance has shaken up sales and rental markets and, in some neighborhoods, sparked rent increases.

On Jo Ann Drive alone, American Homes 4 Rent owns seven homes, property records indicate. In all of Spring Hill, four firms—American Homes, Colony Starwood Homes , SFR 0.06% Progress Residential and Streetlane Homes—own nearly 700 houses, according to tax rolls. That amounts to about 5% of all the houses in town, a 2016 census indicates, and roughly three-quarters of those available for rent, according to Lisa Wurth, president of the local Realtors’ association.

Those four companies and others like them have become big landlords in other Nashville suburbs, and in neighborhoods outside Atlanta, Phoenix and a couple dozen other metropolitan areas. All told, big investors have spent some $40 billion buying about 200,000 houses, renovating them and building rental-management businesses, estimates real-estate research firm Green Street Advisors LLC. Still, they own less than 2% of all U.S. rental homes, according to Green Street.

The buying spree amounts to a huge bet that the homeownership rate, which currently is hovering around a five-decade low, will stay low and that rents will continue to rise. The investors also are wagering that many people no longer see owning a home as an essential part of the American dream.

“The rental stigma has really subsided,” says Michael Cook, operations chief at closely held Streetlane Homes, which owns about 4,000 houses. “People are realizing that houses are not necessarily the best places to store wealth.”

For many years, the rental-home business was dominated by small businesses and mom-and-pop investors, most of whom owned just a property or two. Big investment firms concentrated on other real-estate sectors—apartment buildings, office towers, shopping centers and warehouses—reasoning that single-family homes were too difficult to acquire en masse and unwieldy to manage and maintain.

That all began to change during the financial crisis a decade ago. Swaths of suburbia were sold on courthouse steps after millions of Americans defaulted on mortgages. Veteran real-estate investors raced to buy tens of thousands of deeply discounted houses, often sight unseen. The big buyers included investors Thomas Barrack Jr. and Barry Sternlicht —who later merged their rental-home holdings to create Colony Starwood— Blackstone Group LP, the world’s largest private-equity firm, and self-storage magnate B. Wayne Hughes, who is behind American Homes.

On the first Tuesday of each month during the crisis, investors sent bidders to foreclosure auctions around Atlanta, where the foreclosure rate exceeded 3% in 2011, according to real-estate analytics firm CoreLogic Inc. They toted duffels stuffed with millions of dollars in cashier’s checks made out in various denominations so they wouldn’t have to interrupt their buying sprees with trips to the bank, according to people who participated in the auctions.

Similar scenes played out in Phoenix, where the foreclosure rate hit 5% in late 2010, and in Las Vegas, where it nearly reached 10%.

The big investors accumulated tens of thousands of houses around those cities and others, including Dallas, Chicago and all over Florida, then got to work sprucing them up to rent. Often, renovations were major. Invitation Homes Inc., the company Blackstone created to manage its rental homes and took public in January, says it spent an average of $25,000 fixing up each of the foreclosed homes it bought.

The bulk-buying brought blighted properties back to life and helped speed the recovery of some of the regions hardest hit by the housing crisis. Executives at the investment firms say they offer homes in good school districts to families that may not be able to buy in those neighborhoods because of damaged credit and tighter postcrisis lending standards.

One of those firms, Progress Residential, is owned by a private-equity firm formed by Donald Mullen Jr., a former Goldman Sachs Group Inc. mortgage chief who oversaw the bank’s lucrative bet against the housing market a decade ago. Progress now owns about 20,000 houses.

On a call with investors earlier this year, Mr. Mullen said Progress was betting that much of the middle class will have to rent if it wants to maintain the suburban lifestyle of the past. He said Progress offers “aspirational living experience” to tenants he described as typically about 38 years old and married, with a child or two, annual income of about $88,000, less-than-stellar FICO credit scores of 665 and $45,000 of debt. “Our residents are quite a ways away from being able to purchase a home,” he said.

Home prices in many markets are nearing their 2006 peaks, prompting some investors who bought homes during the downturn to flip them at a profit. But the big buy-to-rent investors are hanging on to their properties and looking to grow.

With fewer foreclosure properties available to buy, those firms have devised other ways to accumulate homes, including buying out rivals, building homes themselves, and buying properties one-by-one on the open market. They are focusing on places where they have gained scale through early foreclosure purchases, or around booming cities such as Nashville, Denver and Seattle.

Corporate buyers prefer easy-to-maintain newer homes in entry-level price ranges and in neighborhoods governed by homeowners associations.
Corporate buyers prefer easy-to-maintain newer homes in entry-level price ranges and in neighborhoods governed by homeowners associations. PHOTO: LUKE SHARRETT FOR THE WALL STREET JOURNAL
With family renters in mind, they rarely consider anything smaller than a three-bedroom. They prefer easy-to-maintain newer homes in entry-level price ranges and in neighborhoods governed by homeowners associations, which can help look after their properties. They often outfit their homes with the same appliances, fixtures and flooring so that their maintenance crews have parts on hand when they make house calls.

They have deep pockets and are dispassionate buyers, paying with cash and never fussing over the carpet or paint color.

Spring Hill is about an hour’s drive south of downtown Nashville. It has attracted investors for the same reasons families flock there. It boasts top-rated schools and has been adding jobs at one of the fastest clips in the country.

General Motors Co. kick-started the town’s growth in 1990 when it opened a vast plant for its now-defunct Saturn brand. The population has grown from about 1,500 back then to some 36,000 today, with subdivisions covering what had once been farmland.

American Homes arrived in 2012, the year after it was founded by Mr. Hughes, now 83 years old, who made billions in the self-storage business, and David Singelyn, who is the company’s chief executive. Mr. Hughes told one of his earliest investors, Alaska’s state oil fund, that he imagined the sort of tenants he wanted—families with school-age children—and then went looking for suitable houses in good school districts.

Nashville’s foreclosure rate never exceeded 2%, so American Homes approached a local builder, John Maher, who had been renting unsold homes in his subdivisions. The company bought about 50 homes from him and later paid about $10 million for 42 rental homes in the area from local landlord Bruce McNeilage and his partners. Then it enlisted local brokers to find more.

Colony Starwood and Progress followed. The proliferation of rental homes spooked owners in some neighborhoods. A few subdivisions voted on whether cap the number of homes that could be rented, but the proposals failed.

“People want to sell their homes to the highest bidder, no matter who it is, and they want to be able to rent their home,” says Jamie Shipley, president of the Wakefield Homeowners Association, which governs a subdivision in which 11% of the homes are owned by institutional investors.

Soon after American Homes closed its deal with Mr. McNeilage, the local landlord, it increased rents on some of the properties by hundreds of dollars a month, according to Mr. McNeilage and some of his former tenants. “People who were on month-to-month leases got a real rude awakening,” he says.

American Homes, which owns more than 48,000 houses nationwide, controls nearly half of Spring Hill’s rental homes, leaving aggrieved renters limited choices. “If you want to be in that subdivision and have your kids go to that elementary school, you have to deal with them,” Mr. McNeilage says.

Jack Corrigan, American Homes’ operations chief, says rent increases for tenants renewing leases average 3% to 3.5%, and the company generally restricts larger hikes to new leases. “We try to be very reasonable with all of our tenants,” he says.

When Aaron Waldie moved to Spring Hill for a job in the finance department of a new hospital, he and his wife, Jessica, intended to use profits from selling their California home to buy a new house. Despite offering thousands of dollars above asking prices, the couple lost several bidding wars and settled for a rental owned by Colony Starwood. “It’s a lot more expensive than homeownership,” he said.

Aaron Waldie and his wife lost several bidding wars for homes in Spring Hill before settling for a rental.
Aaron Waldie and his wife lost several bidding wars for homes in Spring Hill before settling for a rental.
To assess how rents sought by Spring Hill’s big four corporate owners compare with the monthly costs of owning the same properties, The Wall Street Journal analyzed information from the companies’ marketing materials and county sales records for 27 homes purchased by the four since the beginning of March. The analysis—which assumed 10% down payments and 30-year fixed-rate mortgages, plus taxes and insurance—found the posted rents on those homes averaged 32% more than the monthly ownership cost.

The average rent for 148 single-family homes in Spring Hill owned by the big four landlords was about $1,773 a month, according to online listings since early May viewed by the Journal. Other landlords also have raised rents, local brokers say.

“The rent is crazy,” says Bruce Hull, Spring Hill’s vice mayor and owner of a local home-inspection business. “It hasn’t been that long since you could get a three bedroom, two bath for $1,000 a month.”

At a recent conference in New York, Mr. Singelyn, the American Homes CEO, told investors that the average household income declared by those applying to rent from American Homes had risen to $91,000, from $86,000 a year earlier.

“Their wherewithal to pay rent today as well as pay rent in the future, with increases, is sufficient,” he said. “It’s just up to us to educate tenants on a new way, that there will be annual rent increases. This has been a very passively managed industry for 30, 40 years up until institutional players came in.”

When rents are significantly higher than the cost of ownership, renters tend to become house hunters. Builders who were sidelined during the recession are rushing to catch up to demand. Spring Hill issued more than 1,100 residential building permits for single-family homes since 2015, and over the past year its planning commission has rezoned and subdivided properties to accommodate thousands more, according to municipal records.

David Bowater and his fiancée were priced out of Spring Hill when the rent on their two-bedroom townhouse rose to about $1,100, from $875, over four years. “It’s cheaper to buy at this point,” Mr. Bowater says.

After bidding on six homes, they won the seventh. The house is even deeper into the middle Tennessee countryside and farther from the restaurants where they work. Mr. Bowater says it is costing him about $100 a month more to own the home than he was paying in rent on the townhouse, but that it is far cheaper than it would be to rent a comparable home with a yard.

“We had to make a big offer,” he said. “I just hope the bubble doesn’t burst and our loan goes upside down.”

https://www.wsj.com/articles/meet-yo…eet-1500647417
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Today, 04:46 PM
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Mr.Badguy
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Capitalism at work. Love it or hate it that’s the nature of the beast. I’m a millennial and I own a house, but I live in a military town so the market here is always getting an influx of families.
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Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on YOUR NEW HOMEOWNER IS WALL STREET

INVESTIGATING THE INVESTAGATORS

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POLITICS 07/20/2017 09:58 pm ET | Updated 15 hours ago
Trump Asks About Pardons As Lawyers Look At Ways to Derail Mueller Probe
The president’s legal team is investigating the investigators.
By Chris D’Angelo , Nick Visser
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WASHINGTON — Lawyers for Donald Trump, spurred by the president’s own inquiries, are exploring his power to grant pardons — to aides, family and himself — as a means of undermining special counsel Robert Mueller’s investigation into Russian meddling in the 2016 election, The Washington Post reports.
The Post, citing an unnamed source familiar with the queries, said the president himself had asked advisers about the constitutional power, although another source noted that Trump sought only to further his understanding of the privilege. Trump’s lawyer John Dowd called the claims “nonsense.”
Trump’s lawyers are also looking into Mueller’s potential conflicts of interests, perhaps as a way of removing him from the Justice Department’s investigation, according to a Post article that cited several of Trump’s legal advisers. 
Also on Thursday, various outlets reported Trump’s longtime personal attorney and lead counsel on the Russia investigation, Marc Kasowitz, would be stepping into a smaller role. Kasowitz made headlines last week after he threatened a stranger in a string of profane emails, saying things like “watch your back, bitch,” and “I’m on you.”
Trump has reportedly been unhappy with some members of his legal team following a series of revelations involving his son Donald Trump Jr.
HuffPost has reached out to Kasowitz for comment.
Mark Corallo, the spokesman for Trump’s team of personal lawyers, resigned Thursday, the Post and Times reported.
The New York Times also reported on the Trump team’s inquiries, which it described as “wide-ranging,” including “scrutinizing donations to Democratic candidates” and looking into investigators’ former clients and Mueller’s relationship with former FBI Director James Comey.
Trump fired Comey in May while he was leading an investigation into whether Trump’s campaign colluded with Russia. Trump later admitted he was thinking about the Russia investigation when he decided to dismiss the FBI director. 
Among the potential conflicts of interest that Trump’s lawyers are looking at is an alleged dispute over membership fees between Mueller and Trump’s Virginia golf club, according to the Post. 
Earlier Thursday, Bloomberg reported that Mueller’s team is examining transactions involving the president’s businesses and those of his associates, including “Russian purchases of apartments in Trump buildings, Trump’s involvement in a controversial SoHo development with Russian associates, the 2013 Miss Universe pageant in Moscow and Trump’s sale of a Florida mansion to a Russian oligarch in 2008.”
CBS News later confirmed the report, and the Wall Street Journal said the investigation includes potential money laundering by Paul Manafort, who was Trump’s campaign manager during part of the 2016 presidential campaign.
Manafort is scheduled to testify before Congress on July 26, as will the president’s eldest son, Donald Trump Jr.
In a lengthy interview Wednesday in The New York Times, Trump said Mueller would be crossing a “red line” if he looked into the Trump family’s finances beyond any ties with Russia.
Eric Holder, who was an attorney general in the Obama administration, tweeted Thursday night that there was no valid reason to question Mueller’s investigation:  
There is NO basis to question the integrity of Mueller or those serving with him in the special counsel’s office. And no conflicts either
— Eric Holder (@EricHolder) July 21, 2017
Trump cannot define or constrain Mueller investigation. If he tries to do so this creates issues of constitutional and criminal dimension.
— Eric Holder (@EricHolder) July 21, 2017
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KUSHNER IS IN TROUBLE

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Kushner’s Amended Financial Form Lists 77 ‘Omitted’ Holdings

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© Caleb Melby and Bill Allison BC-KUSHNER-DISCLOSURE-1

(Bloomberg) — Jared Kushner, President Donald Trump’s son-in-law and senior adviser, on Friday filed an amended financial disclosure that included 77 items “inadvertently omitted” from a previous filing that the White House released in March.

The updated filing, which reflected his family’s sprawling real estate holdings, detailed additions made “during the ordinary review process” with the federal Office of Government Ethics, according to a copy of the document.
At the same time, Ivanka Trump, the president’s daughter and Kushner’s wife, submitted her own financial disclosure form to OGE. Both documents were released by a White House official. The federal ethics agency hasn’t yet approved Ivanka Trump’s filing.
“Jared and Ivanka have followed each of the required steps in their transition from private citizens to federal officials,” said Jamie Gorelick, an attorney with Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP who represents Kushner.
It’s not unusual for new executive-branch appointees to have to amend their initial financial disclosures to the federal ethics agency. Gorelick said that discussions with OGE, which approves appointees’ disclosures and their plans for handling potential conflicts of interest, “are proceeding in the ordinary course” with regard to Ivanka Trump’s filing.
On her form, Ivanka Trump disclosed a business trust worth more than $50 million with underlying assets that include her trademarks and her jewelry and fashion lines. She also disclosed 10 assets underlying a real estate company, including interests in future hotels and golf courses in New York and a licensing deal for a hotel in India. She valued those assets between $5 million and $25 million. She also disclosed income of $529,590 from the Trump International Hotel in Washington, D.C.
Kushner’s 89-page disclosure reveals dozens of multimillion-dollar assets — reported in ranges of value. The form doesn’t begin to capture the full value of the Kushner family holdings, which are tied to $5.2 billion of assets and $2.9 billion of debt, according to data firm Real Capital Analytics.
Real Estate Sale
The amended filing shows that an entity Kushner owns was involved in the sale of residential real estate in Toledo, Ohio, for as much as $25 million. It describes Kushner’s ownership in the entity as indirect and passive.
A different limited liability company, Dumbo WT Venture LLC, was involved in a purchase on March 31, with a reported amount of as much as $25 million, the filing shows. With co-investors, Kushner Cos. owns properties in the Brooklyn neighborhood of Dumbo, which stands for Down Under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass. His holdings include the Watchtower Building, which he purchased from the Jehovah’s Witnesses.
Kushner also sold assets involving his family’s New Jersey businesses. A sale of his stake in Regal Bank, a lender based in Livingston, where his family has a home, had a reported value of as much as $5 million, and was conducted in April. Three sales that appear to involve his ownership of Monmouth Mall, a shopping center, were also disclosed. Those had a reported value of as much as $2.5 million, and were conducted in May.
When news broke in early January that Kushner would officially join Trump’s administration, his lawyers were ready with a plan to divest from various assets including the New York Observer newspaper and Thrive Capital, a venture capital firm founded by his brother Joshua Kushner. 
Ivanka Trump joined the White House in late March and therefore had a later deadline for filing her disclosures. Neither Kushner nor Ivanka Trump is taking a government salary.
(Updates with additional details from filing and context, beginning in fifth paragraph.)
–With assistance from Shannon Pettypiece
To contact the reporters on this story: Caleb Melby in New York at cmelby@bloomberg.net, Bill Allison in Washington at ballison14@bloomberg.net.
To contact the editors responsible for this story: John Voskuhl at jvoskuhl@bloomberg.net, Joe Sobczyk
©2017 Bloomberg L.P.

Scaramucci hired as WH’s new communications director

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Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on KUSHNER IS IN TROUBLE

PRESS SECRETARY STEPS DOWN

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Spicer says Trump didn’t want him to quit, but ‘too many cooks’ at White House
Published July 21, 2017
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Sean Spicer: President Trump didn’t want me to go
Outgoing White House press secretary Sean Spicer said Friday that President Trump did not want him to resign but Spicer felt there were “too many cooks in the kitchen” promoting the president’s message.
“I just thought it was in the best interest of our communications department, of our press organization, to not have too many cooks in the kitchen,” Spicer told Fox News’ Sean Hannity in an interview hours after he resigned from the White House on Friday.
Spicer quit in apparent protest after Trump tapped Anthony Scaramucci as White House communications director. Sarah Huckabee Sanders was promoted Friday to replace Spicer.
” … my decision was to recommend to the president that I give Anthony and Sarah a clean slate to start from.”
– Sean Spicer
“He wanted to bring some new folks in to help rev up the communications operation, and after reflection, my decision was to recommend to the president that I give Anthony and Sarah a clean slate to start from,” Spicer told Hannity.
WATCH SPICER AND PRIEBUS WITH SEAN HANNITY AT 10 P.M. EST TONIGHT.
White House chief of staff Reince Priebus also spoke to Hannity about the shakeup, saying Spicer is leaving on good terms.
“Sean leaving doesn’t mean that Sean isn’t going to be out there supporting President Trump and it doesn’t mean that President Trump isn’t going to be out there supporting Sean Spicer,” Priebus said.

Expand / Collapse
Scaramucci is taking over as White House communications director  (Associated Press)
Priebus added, “I’ve seen how the world around the president works and it’s very healthy and he cares about his people.”
Spicer’s departure marks the end of a rocky tenure in which the president’s top spokesman at times struggled to keep pace with Trump’s sometimes-chaotic leadership style — and a swirl of controversies.
During the 2016 election cycle, Spicer was the chief strategist and communications director of the Republican National Committee. He later came to the White House along with Priebus, the former RNC chairman who is now Trump’s chief of staff.
Spicer hasn’t had the rosiest relationship with the media since joining the White House. He’s clashed with reporters over “fake news” and said repeatedly the president was fed up with news reports that were “patently false.”
In February, he came under fire for barring reporters from several media outlets from participating in a scheduled press briefing.
His prickly relationship with the press was widely mocked on “Saturday Night Live” with Melissa McCarthy playing Spicer.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.
 

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Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on PRESS SECRETARY STEPS DOWN

TRUMPCARE TROUBLE

EDITION
US

POLITICS 07/21/2017 06:34 pm ET | Updated 2 hours ago
Senate Referee Rejects Key Pieces Of Repeal Bill, Dealing Major Blow To GOP
Abortion provision is out, potentially making bill toxic for conservatives.
By Jonathan Cohn , Laura Bassett , Matt Fuller
X

WASHINGTON — Efforts to repeal the Affordable Care Act ran into big trouble on Friday afternoon, when the Senate parliamentarian ruled that nearly a dozen key provisions of GOP repeal legislation violate special procedural rules that Republicans are using to pass their bill.
The list of provisions includes a clause, which many conservatives consider essential, that would defund Planned Parenthood and block federal money from helping to pay for insurance policies that cover abortion. Parliamentarian Elizabeth MacDonough also ruled out a six-month “lockout” period for people trying to buy insurance after they have let it lapse ― a key policy feature of the Senate bill that insurers say is vital to keeping markets stable.
In the ruling, a summary of which the office of Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) posted, the parliamentarian’s office indicated that it would still be reviewing other parts of the Senate proposal ― including provisions that would allow insurers more flexibility to vary premiums by age or to offer plans that leave out benefits such as mental health and maternity care that current law considers essential.
And the parliamentarian hasn’t even had a chance to consider a new amendment, proposed by Sen. Ted Cruz (R-Texas), that would allow insurers to offer some plans not subject to rules guaranteeing coverage for people with pre-existing conditions.
Politically, the biggest blow for Republicans is the ruling that a provision prohibiting funds from being used to purchase insurance policies that cover abortion. That rider was key to House conservatives accepting their version of the legislation, and Freedom Caucus Chairman Mark Meadows suggested that, without that prohibition, the bill could not pass the House on the way back from the Senate.
“The elimination of the Planned Parenthood [funding prohibition] is very puzzling since it passed the parliamentarian’s scrutiny in the past,” Meadows told HuffPost Friday afternoon, “but today’s ruling as it relates to the life issue will make passage almost impossible.”
The ruling matters because Republicans are trying to pass legislation through the budget reconciliation process, a special procedure in which measures are not subject to a filibuster in the Senate. That makes it possible to pass a bill with just 50 senators rather than 60, with the vice president breaking the tie ― something essential for Republicans, because they have only 52 seats and are not trying to pass their bill with Democratic support.
But if reconciliation makes it possible to pass a bill with fewer votes, it also imposes strict rules on what a bill may include. Legislation must have a significant economic impact and cannot merely change policy ― otherwise it is subject to 60 votes. (This is called the “Byrd Rule,” named after former Democratic Sen. Robert Byrd of West Virginia.)
The parliamentarian is the one who interprets rules. If the parliamentarian decides a provision does not conform to the guidelines for reconciliation, Democrats can (and surely would) demand that the provisions be subject to normal voting procedures ― in other words, subject to a filibuster that would require 60 votes to overcome.
“The parliamentarian’s decision today proves once again that the process Republicans have undertaken to repeal the Affordable Care Act and throw 22 million Americans off of health insurance is a disaster,” said Sanders, who is ranking member of the Senate Budget Committee.
The parliamentarian’s ruling is not the end of the story. Republicans could modify language in their bill, in the hope that with some small tweaks it would pass muster. Or they could decide to vote on legislation other than the Better Care Reconciliation Act, which is the bill GOP leaders submitted for consideration.
Additionally, the parliamentarian isn’t the final arbiter of what the Senate may consider in reconciliation. It’s the presiding officer, who in this case would likely be Vice President Mike Pence. The presiding officer could simply ignore the parliamentarian’s guidance ― a move that conservatives like Cruz have suggested Republicans consider, even though it would flout Senate traditions and other Republicans have hinted they would not support it.
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Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on TRUMPCARE TROUBLE

ROUNDERS

Rounders (film)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Rounders

Theatrical release poster
Directed by
John Dahl
Produced by
Joel Stillerman
Ted Demme
Written by
David Levien
Brian Koppelman
Starring
Matt Damon
Edward Norton
John Turturro
Famke Janssen
Gretchen Mol
John Malkovich
Martin Landau
Music by
Christopher Young
Cinematography
Jean-Yves Escoffier
Edited by
Scott Chestnut
Production
company
Spanky Pictures
Distributed by
Miramax Films
Release date
September 4, 1998 (Venice Film Festival)
September 8, 1998 (Deauville Film Festival)
September 11, 1998 (United States)
Running time
121 minutes
Country
United States
Language
English
French
Budget
$12 million[1]
Box office
$22.9 million
(United States)[1]
Rounders is a 1998 American drama film about the underground world of high-stakes poker, directed by John Dahl, and starring Matt Damon and Edward Norton. The film follows two friends who need to quickly earn enough cash playing poker to pay off a large debt. The term “rounder” refers to a person traveling around from city to city seeking high-stakes cash games.
Rounders opened to mixed reviews and earned only a modest box office. With the growing popularity of Texas hold ’em and other poker games, the film became a cult hit.

Contents  [hide] 
1
Plot
2
Cast
3
Production
3.1
Filming
4
Reception
4.1
Box office
4.2
Critical response
5
References
6
External links

Plot[edit]
Gifted poker player and law student Mike McDermott (Matt Damon) dreams of playing in the World Series of Poker (WSOP) and sitting next to his idol Johnny Chan. Unfortunately, Mike loses his entire $30,000 bankroll after being outplayed in a hand of Texas hold’em against Teddy “KGB” (John Malkovich), a Russian mobster who runs an illegal underground poker room. Shaken, Mike decides to concentrate on law school while promising his girlfriend and fellow law student Jo (Gretchen Mol) that he will not play poker anymore. Mentor and fellow rounder Joey Knish (John Turturro) offers McDermott a part-time job driving a delivery truck to make ends meet.
Time passes and Mike stays true to his promise. He focuses on school and work until his childhood friend Lester “Worm” Murphy (Edward Norton) is released from prison. While Mike is a card player, Worm is a hustler who often cheats to win. He also owes an outstanding debt accumulated before his incarceration. Mike feels indebted to his childhood friend, so he takes him under his wing after his release from prison. Worm’s old business partner, Grama, has now partnered with Teddy KGB and bought up his outstanding debt. At Worm’s influence, Mike is soon rounding again, which interferes with his studies and hurts his relationship with Jo.
Worm is given a five-day deadline to pay off his debt and Mike joins him in a furious race to earn the money. Worm wants to cheat to win, but Mike insists on playing the game straight. Playing in several card games in and around New York City, the two nearly make the $15,000 needed. Worm joins a game against Mike’s recommendation out of town hosted by New York State Troopers. Worm then gets caught “base-dealing” (dealing favorable cards from the bottom of the deck). They are beaten up and their entire bankroll is taken. After this, Worm, not wanting to face his problems, decides to flee New York City, and he advises Mike to do the same.
Mike refuses to leave, and with the help of a $10,000 loan from his law school professor Petrovsky (Martin Landau), Mike challenges Teddy KGB to a second game of heads-up, No-Limit Texas Hold’em. Mike beats Teddy in the first session, and has enough money to pay off Worm’s debt along with half of the $10,000 he’d borrowed from Petrovsky. As he is about to leave, KGB taunts Mike, and points out that Mike has won back only some of the $30,000 that he had initially lost.
Mike hesitates before agreeing to play again, which would risk all of the money and possibly his life, as losing would leave him unable to pay Grama and KGB. As the night wears on, Mike is on the verge of losing all of his chips. Mike suddenly spots a tell, a repeated behavior that allows him to know the value of Teddy’s hand. Teddy KGB is furious when he realizes this, and goes on “tilt”, meaning he is playing very poorly. This lack of focus allows Mike to outplay Teddy for the rest of his chips.
Mike settles Worm’s debt, repays the $10,000 loan from his law professor, and restores his original bankroll of “three stacks of high society.” Mike drops out of law school, says goodbye to Jo, and makes his way to Las Vegas with dreams of winning the World Series of Poker Main Event.
Cast[edit]
Matt Damon as Mike McDermott
Edward Norton as Lester “Worm” Murphy
John Turturro as Joey Knish, character inspired by wry underground poker player Joel “Bagels” Rosenberg[2]
John Malkovich as Teddy KGB
Famke Janssen as Petra
Michael Rispoli as Grama
Martin Landau as Abe Petrovsky
Gretchen Mol as Jo
Paul Cicero as Russian Thug
Melina Kanakaredes as Barbara
Josh Mostel as Zagosh
Tom Aldredge as Judge Marinacci
Lenny Clarke as Savino
Chris Messina as Higgins
Goran Višnjić as Maurice
David Zayas as Osborne
Johnny Chan as himself
Production[edit]
Filming[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Principal photography for Rounders began in December 1997; it took place mostly in New York. Exceptions include the law school scenes (filmed at Rutgers School of Law-Newark) and the State Trooper poker game and parking lot scenes (filmed at the B.P.O Elks Lodge in Ridgefield Park, New Jersey).
Reception[edit]
Box office[edit]
Rounders was released on September 11, 1998 in 2,176 theaters and grossed $8.5 million during its opening weekend. It went on to make $22.9 million domestically.[1]
Critical response[edit]
Film critic Roger Ebert gave the film three out of four stars and wrote: “Rounders sometimes has a noir look but it never has a noir feel, because it’s not about losers (or at least it doesn’t admit it is). It’s essentially a sports picture, in which the talented hero wins, loses, faces disaster, and then is paired off one last time against the champ.”[3] In her review for the New York Times, Janet Maslin wrote: “Though John Dahl’s Rounders finally adds up to less than meets the eye, what does meet the eye (and ear) is mischievously entertaining.”[4] USA Today gave the film three out of four stars and wrote: “The card playing is well-staged, and even those who don’t know a Texas hold-’em (‘the Cadillac of poker’) from a Texas hoedown will get a vicarious charge out of the action.”[5] Entertainment Weekly gave the film a “B” rating and Owen Gleiberman wrote, “Norton, cast in what might have once been the Sean Penn role (hideous shirts, screw-you attitude), gives Worm a shifty, amphetamine soul and a pleasing alacrity … Norton’s performance never really goes anywhere, but that’s okay, since the story is just an excuse to lead the characters from one poker table to the next.”[6]
Peter Travers, in his review for Rolling Stone said of John Malkovich’s performance: “Of course, no one could guess the extent to which Malkovich is now capable of chewing scenery. He surpasses even his eyeballrolling as Cyrus the Virus in Con Air. Munching Oreo cookies, splashing the pot with chips (a poker no-no) and speaking with a Russian accent that defies deciphering (“Ho-kay, Meester sum of a beech”), Malkovich soars so far over the top, he’s passing Pluto.”[7] In his review for the San Francisco Chronicle, Mick LaSalle said of Damon’s performance: “Mike should supply the drive the film otherwise lacks, and Damon doesn’t. We might believe he can play cards, but we don’t believe he needs to do it, in the way, say, that the 12-year-old Mozart needed to write symphonies. He’s not consumed with genius. He’s a nice guy with a skill.”[8] In his review for the Globe and Mail, Liam Lacey wrote: “The main problem with Rounders is that the movie never quite knows what it is about: What is the moral ante?”[9]
Despite an unremarkable theatrical release, Rounders has a following, particularly among poker enthusiasts.[10]
There are pro poker players who credit the film for getting them into the game.[11] The film drew in successful players such as Brian Rast, Hevad Khan, Gavin Griffin and Dutch Boyd. Vanessa Rousso has said of the film’s influence: “There have been lots of movies that have included poker, but only Rounders really captures the energy and tension in the game. And that’s why it stands as the best poker movie ever made.”[11]
References[edit]
^
Jump up to:
a b c “Rounders (1998)”. Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
Jump up
^ “Joel “Bagels” Rosenberg, aka Joey Knish, Passes Away”. www.pokernewsdaily.com. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
Jump up
^ Ebert, Roger (September 11, 1998). “Rounders review”. Chicago Sun-Times. RogerEbert.com. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
Jump up
^ Maslin, Janet (September 11, 1998). “Knowing When to Hold ’em and Fold ’em but Just Not When to Run”. New York Times. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
Jump up
^ Wloszczyna, Susan (September 11, 1998). “Rounders hedges bets with Damon in the ante”. USA Today. p. 11.
Jump up
^ Gleiberman, Owen (September 18, 1998). “Rounders review”. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved November 25, 2009.
Jump up
^ Travers, Peter (October 1, 1998). “Rounders review”. Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
Jump up
^ LaSalle, Mick (September 11, 1998). “Rounders Deals Out a Mediocre Hand”. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
Jump up
^ Lacey, Liam (September 11, 1998). “If they’d played their cards right, this could have been a winner”. Globe and Mail. p. C7.
Jump up
^ Tobias, Scott (October 30, 2008). “The New Cult Canon: Rounders”. The Onion A.V. Club. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
^
Jump up to:
a b Polson, Sarah (March 4, 2009). “Pros discuss Rounders’ impact on poker”. PokerListings.com. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Rounders
Rounders on IMDb
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Rounders at the TCM Movie Database
Rounders at Rotten Tomatoes
Rounders at Metacritic
Rounders at Box Office Mojo
[hide]
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Films directed by John Dahl
Kill Me Again (1989)Red Rock West (1993)The Last Seduction (1994)Unforgettable (1996)Rounders (1998)Joy Ride (2001)The Great Raid (2005)You Kill Me (2007)
Categories: 1998 films1990s drama films1990s independent filmsAmerican buddy filmsAmerican drama filmsAmerican independent filmsAmerican filmsFilm scores by Christopher YoungFilms about the Russian MafiaFilms directed by John DahlFilms set in New York CityFilms shot in Atlantic City, New JerseyFilms shot in New YorkFilms shot in New JerseyGambling filmsMiramax filmsNeo-noir

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Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on ROUNDERS

IDIOCRACY

Idiocracy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Ideocracy.
Idiocracy

Theatrical release poster
Directed by
Mike Judge
Produced by
Mike Judge
Elysa Koplovitz
Michael Nelson
Written by
Etan Cohen
Mike Judge
Starring
Luke Wilson
Maya Rudolph
Dax Shepard
Narrated by
Earl Mann
Music by
Theodore Shapiro
Cinematography
Tim Suhrstedt
Edited by
David Rennie
Production
company
Ternion
Distributed by
20th Century Fox
Release date
September 1, 2006
Running time
84 minutes
Country
United States
Language
English
Budget
$2–4 million
Box office
$495,303 (worldwide)[1]
Idiocracy is a 2006 American satirical science fiction comedy film directed by Mike Judge and starring Luke Wilson, Maya Rudolph, and Dax Shepard. The film tells the story of two people who take part in a top-secret military human hibernation experiment, only to awaken 500 years later in a dystopian society where advertising, commercialism, and cultural anti-intellectualism have run rampant, and which is devoid of intellectual curiosity, social responsibility, and coherent notions of justice and human rights.
The film was not screened for critics and distributor 20th Century Fox was accused of abandoning the film. Despite its lack of a major theatrical release, which resulted in a mere $495,303 box office, the film received generally positive reviews from critics and has become a cult film.[2]

Contents  [hide] 
1
Plot
2
Cast
3
Themes
4
Production
5
Release
5.1
Box office performance
5.2
Critical reception
5.3
Home media
6
Spin-offs
7
References
8
External links

Plot[edit]
A United States Army librarian, Corporal “Average Joe” Bauers, is selected for a suspended animation experiment on grounds of average appearance, intelligence, behavior, etc. Lacking a suitable female candidate, they hire Rita, a prostitute whose pimp “Upgrayedd” has been bribed to allow her to take part. The experiment is forgotten when the officer in charge is arrested for having started his own prostitution ring under Upgrayedd’s tutelage. Five hundred years later, Joe and Rita’s suspension chambers are unearthed by the collapse of a mountain-sized garbage pile, and Joe’s suspension chamber crashes into the apartment of Frito Pendejo, who expels him.
The former Washington, D.C. has lost most of its infrastructure, with people living in plastic huts called “domistile”. The human population have become morbidly stupid, speak only low registers of English competently, are profoundly anti-intellectual, and are named after corporate products. Suspecting hallucination, Joe enters a hospital, where he is incompetently diagnosed, and comes to realize what has happened to him and to society. He is arrested for not having a bar code tattoo to pay for his doctor’s appointment, and after being assigned the grossly incompetent Frito as his lawyer, he is sent to prison. Rita returns to her former profession.
Joe is renamed “Not Sure” by a faulty tattooing machine, and takes an IQ test before tricking the guards into letting him escape. Once free, Joe asks Frito whether a time machine exists to return him to 2005, and bribes him with promises of riches through compound interest on a bank account Joe will open in the 21st century. Frito knows of one, and leads him with Rita to a gigantic Costco store, where a tattoo scanner identifies Joe. He is apprehended, but is taken to the White House, where he is appointed Secretary of the Interior, on the grounds that his IQ test identified him as the most intelligent person alive.
In a speech, President Camacho gives Joe the impossible job of fixing the nation’s food shortages, Dust Bowls, and crippled economy within a week. Joe discovers that the nation’s crops are irrigated with a sports drink named “Brawndo”, whose parent corporation had purchased the FDA, FCC, and USDA. When Joe has the drink replaced with water, Brawndo’s stock drops to zero, and half of the population lose their jobs, causing mass riots. Joe is sentenced to die in a monster truck demolition derby featuring undefeated “Rehabilitation Officer” Beef Supreme.
Frito and Rita discover that Joe’s reintroduction of water to the soil has prompted vegetation to grow in the fields. During the televised event they show the sprouting crops on the stadium’s display screen, and Camacho gives Joe a full pardon, appointing him Vice President. Joe and Rita find that the “time masheen” Frito had mentioned is merely an inaccurate, history-themed amusement ride. Following Camacho’s term, Joe is elected President. Joe and Rita marry and conceive the world’s three smartest children, while Vice President Frito takes eight wives and fathers 32 of the world’s stupidest children.
Cast[edit]
Luke Wilson as Cpl. “Average Joe” Bauers/”Not Sure”
Maya Rudolph as Rita
Dax Shepard as Frito Pendejo
Terry Crews as President Dwayne Elizondo Mountain Dew Herbert Camacho
David Herman as Secretary of State
Justin Long as Dr. Lexus
Andrew Wilson as Beef Supreme
Brad “Scarface” Jordan as Upgrayedd
Thomas Haden Church as Brawndo CEO
Stephen Root as Judge Hector “The Hangman” BMW
Tom Kenny as voice of the IPPA Computer
Randal Reeder as Secret Service Thug
Themes[edit]
The idea of a dystopian society based on dysgenics is not new. H. G. Wells’ The Time Machine postulates a devolved society of humans, as does the short story “The Marching Morons” by Cyril M. Kornbluth, akin to the “Epsilon-minus Semi-Morons” of Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World.[3][4] Salon writer Adam Johnson accused the film of supporting eugenics, saying, “While the movie is savvy enough to avoid overt racism, it dives head first into gross classism.”[5]
During the 2016 presidential primaries, writer Etan Cohen[6] and others expressed opinions that the film’s predictions were converging on accuracy,[7][8][9] which, during the general election, director Mike Judge also said.[10] At the time, Judge also compared Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump—who later won and became President of the United States—to the movie’s dim-witted wrestler-turned-president, Dwayne Elizondo Mountain Dew Herbert Camacho.[10] When asked about predicting the future, he remarked, “I’m no prophet, I was off by 490 years.”[11]
Production[edit]
Early working titles included The United States of Uhh-merica[12] and 3001. Filming took place in 2004 on several stages at Austin Studios[13][14] and in the cities of Austin, San Marcos, Pflugerville, and Round Rock, Texas.[15]
Test screenings around March 2005 produced unofficial reports of poor audience reactions. After some re-shooting in the summer of 2005, a UK test screening in August produced a report of a positive impression.[16]
Release[edit]
Idiocracy’s original release date was August 5, 2005, according to Mike Judge.[17] In April 2006, a release date was set for September 1, 2006. In August, numerous articles[18] revealed that release was to be put on hold indefinitely. Idiocracy was released as scheduled but only in seven cities (Los Angeles, Atlanta, Toronto, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, and Mike Judge’s hometown, Austin, Texas),[14] and expanded to only 130 theaters,[19] not the usual wide release of 600 or more theaters.[20] According to the Austin American-Statesman, 20th Century Fox, the film’s distributor, was entirely absent in promoting the feature;[14] while posters were released to theatres, “no movie trailers, no ads, and only two stills,”[21] and no press kits were released.[22]
The film was not screened for critics.[23] Lack of concrete information from Fox led to speculation that the distributor may have actively tried to keep the film from being seen by a large audience, while fulfilling a contractual obligation for theatrical release ahead of a DVD release, according to Ryan Pearson of the AP.[19] That speculation was followed by open criticism of the studio’s lack of support from Ain’t It Cool News, Time, and Esquire.[24][25][26] Time’s Joel Stein wrote “the film’s ads and trailers tested atrociously”, but, “still, abandoning Idiocracy seems particularly unjust, since Judge has made a lot of money for Fox.”[25]
In The New York Times, Dan Mitchell argued that Fox might be shying away from the cautionary tale about low-intelligence dysgenics, because the company did not want to offend either its viewers or potential advertisers portrayed negatively in the film.[27] In 2017, Judge told The New York Times that the film’s lack of marketing and wide release was the result of negative test screenings.[28] He added that Fox subsequently decided to not give the film a strong marketing push because the distributor believed it would develop a cult following through word-of-mouth and re-coup its budget through home video sales, as Judge’s previous film Office Space had.[28]
Box office performance[edit]

Film
Release date
Box office revenue
Box office ranking
Budget
Reference
United States
United States
International
Worldwide
All time United States
All time worldwide
Idiocracy
September 1, 2006
$444,093
$51,210
$495,303
#6,914
Unknown
Unknown
[29]
Box office receipts totaled $444,093 in the U.S., with the widest release being 135 theaters.[30]
Critical reception[edit]
Although it was not screened in advance for critics, Idiocracy received positive reviews. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a 74% approval rating, based on 43 reviews, with an average rating of 6.5/10. The site’s critical consensus reads, “Idiocracy delivers the hilarity and biting satire that could only come from Mike Judge”.[31] On Metacritic, the film has a score of 66 out of 100, based on 12 critics, indicating “generally favorable reviews”.[32]
Los Angeles Times reviewer Carina Chocano described it as “spot on” satire and a “pitch-black, bleakly hilarious vision of an American future”, although the “plot, naturally, is silly and not exactly bound by logic. But it’s Judge’s gimlet-eyed knack for nightmarish extrapolation that makes Idiocracy a cathartic delight.”[33] In an in Entertainment Weekly review only 87 words long,[19] Joshua Rich gave the film an “EW Grade” of “D”, stating that “Mike Judge implores us to reflect on a future in which Britney and K-Fed are like the new Adam and Eve.”[34] The A.V. Club’s Nathan Rabin found Luke Wilson “perfectly cast … as a quintessential everyman”; and wrote of the film: “Like so much superior science fiction, Idiocracy uses a fantastical future to comment on a present. … There’s a good chance that Judge’s smartly lowbrow Idiocracy will be mistaken for what it’s satirizing.”[23]
The film was also well received in other countries. John Patterson, critic for UK newspaper The Guardian, wrote, “Idiocracy isn’t a masterpiece—Fox seems to have stiffed Judge on money at every stage—but it’s endlessly funny”, and of the film’s popularity, described seeing the film “in a half-empty house. Two days later, same place, same show—packed-out.”[35] Brazilian news magazine Veja called the film “politically incorrect”, recommended that readers see the DVD, and wrote “the film went flying through [American] theaters and did not open in Brazil. Proof that the future contemplated by Judge is not that far away.”[36]
Critic Alexandre Koball of the Brazilian website CinePlayers.com, while giving the movie a score of 5/5 along with another staff reviewer, wrote, “Idiocracy is not exactly … funny nor … innovative but it’s a movie to make you think, even if for five minutes. And for that it manages to stay one level above the terrible average of comedy movies released in the last years in the United States.”[37]
Home media[edit]
Idiocracy was released on DVD on January 9, 2007. It has earned $9 million on DVD rentals, over 20 times its gross domestic box office revenue of under $450,000.[38]
In the United Kingdom, uncut versions of the film were shown on satellite channel Sky Comedy on February 26, 2009, with the Freeview premiere shown on Film4 on April 26, 2009.
Spin-offs[edit]
In August 2012, Crews said he was in talks with director Judge and Fox over a possible Idiocracy spin-off featuring his President Camacho character, initially conceived as a web series.[39] A week before the 2012 elections, he reprised the character in a series of shorts for website Funny or Die. In June 2016, before the presidential election in November, Rolling Stone published an article stating that Judge and Cohen would produce Idiocracy themed campaign advertisements opposing Donald Trump’s presidential campaign if given permission from Fox to do so.[needs update] In those ads, Crews would again reprise his role as President Camacho.[40]
References[edit]
Jump up
^ “Idiocracy”. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
Jump up
^ Walker, Rob (May 4, 2008). “This Joke’s for You”. The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved May 26, 2009.
Jump up
^ Tremblay, Ronald Michel (November 4, 2009). “Humankind’s future: social and political Utopia or Idiocracy?”. Atlantic Free Press. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
Jump up
^ Grigg, William Norman (May 14, 2010). “Idiocracy Rising”. Lew Rockwell. Retrieved 2010-10-02.
Jump up
^ Adam Johnson. “”Idiocracy’s” curdled politics: The beloved dystopian comedy is really a celebration of eugenics”. Salon.
Jump up
^ “Idiocracy Writer Shocked How Well the Movie Predicted the Future”. IFC.
Jump up
^ “Is Donald Trump the Herald of ‘Idiocracy’?”. Collider. March 1, 2016.
Jump up
^ “Idiocracy Writer Admits He May Have Predicted the Future”. GOOD Magazine.
Jump up
^ David Berry (March 1, 2016). “The idiaccuracy of Idiocracy: When life imitates art for better or for the actual worst”. National Post.
^
Jump up to:
a b Friedman, Megan (19 August 2016). “Director Mike Judge Says It’s ‘Scary’ How Idiocracy Has Come True”. Esquire. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
Jump up
^ Stein, Joel (May 12, 2016). “We have become an Idiocracy”. TIME. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
Jump up
^ Pierce, Thomas (January 11, 2007). “So What Idiot Kept This Movie Out of Theaters? (3rd item)”. NPR. Retrieved 2007-02-09.
Jump up
^ “Idiocracy at Austin Studios. Facilities usage.”. Austin Studios;. Austin Film Society. Archived from the original on 2007-10-08. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
^
Jump up to:
a b c Garcia, Chris (August 30, 2006). “Was ‘Idiocracy’ treated idiotically?”. Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved 2007-02-09.
Jump up
^ “Texas Film Commission Filmography (2000-2007)”. Office of the Governor. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
Jump up
^ “Mike Judge’s Idiocracy Tests! (etc.)”. Eric Vespe quoting anonymous contributor. AintItCoolNews.com. August 22, 2005. Retrieved 2007-02-09.
Jump up
^ Franklin, Garth (February 28, 2005). “Mike Judge Still Not In “3001””. Dark Horizons. Archived from the original on February 5, 2008. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
Jump up
^ Carroll, Larry (August 30, 2006). “MTV Movie File”. MTV. Viacom. Retrieved 2007-02-09.
^
Jump up to:
a b c Pearson, Ryan (September 8, 2006). “The mystery of ‘Idiocracy'”. Associated Press. Retrieved 2006-11-25.
Jump up
^ About Movie Box Office Tracking and Terms. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2010-08-28.
Jump up
^ Kernion, Jette (October 22, 2006). “Time for Mike Judge to go Indie”. Cinematical.
Jump up
^ Patel, Nihar (September 8, 2006). “A Paucity of Publicity for ‘Idiocracy'”. Day to Day. NPR. Transcript.
^
Jump up to:
a b Rabin, Nathan (September 6, 2006). “Idiocracy (review)”. The A.V. Club. The Onion. Retrieved 2007-02-08.
Jump up
^ Vespe, Eric (September 2, 2006). “Open Letter to Fox re: IDIOCRACY!!!”. Ain’t It Cool News.
^
Jump up to:
a b Stein, Joel (September 10, 2006). “Dude, Where’s My Film?”. Time Magazine.
Jump up
^ Raftery, Brian (June 1, 2006). “Mike Judge Is Getting Screwed (Again)”. Esquire.
Jump up
^ Mitchell, Dan (September 9, 2006). “Shying away from Degeneracy”. New York Times. Retrieved 2006-11-25.
^
Jump up to:
a b Staley, Willy (13 April 2017). “Mike Judge, the Bard of Suck”. The New York Times. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
Jump up
^ “Idiocracy (2006)”. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
Jump up
^ “Idiocracy”. Box Office Mojo. Amazon.com. Retrieved 2007-02-02.
Jump up
^ “Idiocracy”. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2016-05-07.
Jump up
^ “Idiocracy”. Metacritic. Retrieved 2009-09-08.
Jump up
^ Chocano, Carina (September 4, 2006). “Movie review : ‘Idiocracy'”. Los Angeles Times. calendarlive.com. Archived from the original on March 11, 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
Jump up
^ Rich, Joshua (August 30, 2006). “Idiocracy (2006)”. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
Jump up
^ Patterson, John (September 8, 2006). “On film : Stupid Fox”. The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 2010-09-28.
Jump up
^ “Idiocracy”. veja.com (in Portuguese). Brazil: VEJA. March 21, 2007. Retrieved 2010-09-16. …o filme passou voando pelos cinemas americanos e nem estreou nos brasileiros. Prova de que o futuro vislumbrado por Judge não está assim tão distante.
Jump up
^ Koball, Alexandre (April 12, 2007). “Idiocracy (2006)”. CinePlayers.com (in Portuguese). Brazil. Retrieved 2010-09-16.
Jump up
^ “Idiocracy (2006) – DVD / Home Video Rentals – Box Office Mojo”.
Jump up
^ Yamato, Jen (August 6, 2012). “Idiocracy Spin-Off In The Works? Terry Crews Talks”. Movieline. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
Jump up
^ “‘Idiocracy’ Team Ready Anti-Donald Trump Campaign Ads”. rollingstone.com. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
External links[edit]

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Idiocracy at Metacritic
Scenes from the film at the Fox Home Entertainment YouTube channel.
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Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on IDIOCRACY

PERFECT BODY

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A study asked men across the world to identify the perfect female body shape. What they found was incredibly depressing

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A study of different female body shape preferences found that men prefer body shapes that suggest youth.
Men from 10 countries were asked to rank a series of body shapes from most to least attractive.

Popular among all the participants was the female body shape with a BMI of 19.
This is on the borderline with being underweight.
A correlation between higher BMI and perceived lesser attractiveness was also evident.
Related: How the ‘perfect body’ for men went from chubby to skinny to muscular over the last 150 years [Provided by Business Insider]

How the ‘perfect body’ for men went from chubby to skinny to muscular over the last 150 years
Professor John Speakman, who led the study, explained:
“Fitness in evolutionary terms comprises two things: survival and the ability to reproduce.
What we wanted to investigate was the idea that when we look at someone and think they are physically attractive, are we actually making that assessment based on a hard-wired evolutionary understanding of their potential for future survival and reproductive ability?”
One of the study’s authors Dr Lobke Vaanholt, also commented:
“Although most people will not be surprised that extreme thinness was perceived as the most attractive body type, since this prevails so heavily in media, culture and fashion, the important advance is that now we have an evolutionary understanding of why this is the case.”
The team believed the preference for a lower BMI was because it suggested a woman aged 17-20.
The study was published in PeerJ in 2015.
Related Video: Women’s Ideal Body Types Throughout History [Provided by Buzzfeed]

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O.J. SIMPSON IS FREED

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O.J. Simpson granted parole after nearly 9 years in prison

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OJ Simpson Granted Parole

LOVELOCK, Nev. (AP) — O.J. Simpson was granted parole Thursday after more than eight years in prison for a Las Vegas hotel heist, successfully making his case in a nationally televised hearing that reflected America’s enduring fascination with the former football star.
Simpson, 70, could be a free man as early as Oct. 1. By then, he will have served the minimum of his nine-to-33-year armed-robbery sentence for a bungled attempt to snatch sports memorabilia and other mementos he claimed had been stolen from him.
All four parole commissioners who conducted the hearing voted for his release after about a half-hour of deliberations. They cited his lack of a prior conviction, the low risk he might commit another crime, his community support and his release plans, which include moving to Florida.
“Thank you, thank you, thank you,” Simpson said quietly as he buried his head on his chest with relief. As he rose from his seat to return to his prison cell, he exhaled deeply.
Then, as he was led down a hall, the former athlete raised his hands over his head in a victory gesture and said, “Oh, God, oh!”
Simpson’s sister, Shirley Baker, wept and hugged Simpson’s 48-year-old daughter Arnelle, who held a hand over her mouth.

Former NFL football star O.J. Simpson reacts after learning he was granted parole at Lovelock Correctional Center in Lovelock, Nev., on Thursday, July 20, 2017. Simpson was convicted in 2008 of enlisting some men he barely knew, including two who had guns, to retrieve from two sports collectibles sellers some items that Simpson said were stolen from him a decade earlier. (Jason Bean/The Reno Gazette-Journal via AP, Pool)
Next Slide

1/12 SLIDES © Jason Bean/The Reno Gazette-Journal via AP, Pool
Former NFL football star O.J. Simpson reacts after learning he was granted parole at Lovelock Correctional Center in Lovelock, Nev., on Thursday, July 20, 2017. Simpson was convicted in 2008 of enlisting some men he barely knew, including two who had guns, to retrieve from two sports collectibles sellers some items that Simpson said were stolen from him a decade earlier. (Jason Bean/The Reno Gazette-Journal via AP, Pool)

During the more than hour-long hearing, Simpson forcefully insisted — as he has all along — that he was only trying to retrieve items that belonged to him and never meant to hurt anyone. He said he never pointed a gun at anyone nor made any threats during the crime.
“I’m sorry it happened, I’m sorry, Nevada,” he told the board. “I thought I was glad to get my stuff back, but it just wasn’t worth it. It wasn’t worth it, and I’m sorry.”
Inmate No. 1027820 made his plea for freedom in a stark hearing room at the Lovelock Correctional Center in rural Nevada as the four parole commissioners in Carson City, a two-hour drive away, questioned him via video.
Gray-haired but looking trimmer than he has in recent years, Simpson walked briskly into the hearing room in jeans, a light-blue prison-issue shirt and sneakers. He chuckled at one point as the parole board chairwoman mistakenly gave his age as 90.
The Hall of Fame athlete’s chances of winning release were considered good, given similar cases and Simpson’s model behavior behind bars. His defenders have argued, too, that his sentence was out of proportion to the crime and that he was being punished for the two murders he was acquitted of during his 1995 “Trial of the Century” in Los Angeles, the stabbings of ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman.
Before the hearing concluded, one of the two memorabilia dealers Simpson robbed, Bruce Fromong, said the former football great never pointed a gun at him during the confrontation, adding that it was one of Simpson’s accomplices. Fromong said Simpson deserved to be released so he can be with his children.
“He is a good man. He made a mistake,” Fromong said, adding the two remain friends.
Arnelle Simpson, the eldest of Simpson’s children, also testified on his behalf, saying her father is not perfect but realizes what a mistake he made and has spent years paying for it.
“We just want him to come home, we really do,” she said.
Simpson said that he has spent his time in prison mentoring fellow inmates, often keeping others out of trouble, and believes he has become a better person during those years.
“I’ve done my time. I’ve done it as well and respectfully as I think anybody can,” he told the board.
Asked if he was confident he could stay out of trouble if released, Simpson replied that he learned a lot from an alternative-to-violence course he took in prison and that in any case he has always gotten along well with people.
“I had basically spent a conflict-free life,” he said — a remark that lit up social media with sarcastic comments given the murder case and a raft of allegations he abused his wife.
Several major TV networks and cable channels — including ABC, CBS, NBC, CNN, Fox, MSNBC and ESPN — carried the proceedings live, just as some of them did two decades ago during the Ford Bronco chase that ended in Simpson’s arrest, and again when the jury in the murder case came back with its verdict.
Simpson said if released he plans to return to Florida, where he was living before his incarceration.
“I could easily stay in Nevada, but I don’t think you guys want me here,” he joked at one point.
“No comment, sir,” one of the parole board members said.
An electrifying running back dubbed “The Juice,” Simpson won the Heisman Trophy as the nation’s best college football player in 1968 and went on to become one of the NFL’s all-time greats.
The handsome and charismatic athlete was also a “Monday Night Football” commentator, sprinted through airports in Hertz rental-car commercials and built a Hollywood career with roles in the “Naked Gun” comedies and other movies.
All of that came crashing down with his arrest in the 1994 slayings and his trial, a gavel-to-gavel live-TV sensation that transfixed viewers with its testimony about the bloody glove that didn’t fit and stirred furious debate over racist police, celebrity justice and cameras in the courtroom.
Last year, the case proved to be compelling TV all over again with the ESPN documentary “O.J.: Made in America” and the award-winning FX miniseries “The People v. O.J. Simpson: American Crime Story.”
In 1997, Simpson was found liable in civil court for the two killings and ordered to pay $33.5 million to survivors, including his children and the Goldman family.
Then a decade later, he and five accomplices — two with guns — stormed a hotel room and seized photos, plaques and signed balls, some of which never belonged to Simpson, from two sports memorabilia dealers.
Simpson was convicted in 2008, and the long prison sentence brought a measure of satisfaction to some of those who thought he got away with murder.

Slide 1 of 26: 467829750117
Next Slide

1/26 SLIDES © Eric Draper/ASSOCIATED PRESS/AP Images
O.J. Simpson
The retired NFL player was charged with the murder of his estranged wife Nicole Brown Simpson and waiter Ronald Lyle Goldman in 1994. Simpson surrendered to the police following a dramatic low-speed chase through the streets of Los Angeles. He pleaded not guilty to both murders. Almost after a year of a widely-watched jury trial, Simpson was found not guilty. 

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Posted in New Essays | Comments Off on O.J. SIMPSON IS FREED

ROMAN POLANSKI

Roman Polanski
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“Polanski” redirects here. For other people with this name, see Polanski (surname). For other uses, see Polanski (disambiguation).
Roman Polanski

Polanski at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival
Born
Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański
18 August 1933 (age 83)
Paris, France
Residence
France, Poland[1]
Occupation
Film director, producer, writer, actor
Years active
1954–present
Spouse(s)
Barbara Kwiatkowska-Lass (m. 1959; div. 1962)
Sharon Tate (m. 1968; k. 1969)
Emmanuelle Seigner (m. 1989)
Children
2; including Morgane Polanski
Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański (born 18 August 1933) is a French-Polish[2] film director, producer, writer, actor, and convicted statutory rapist. Born in Paris, his Polish-Jewish parents moved the family back to Poland in 1937, when he was four. Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany 2 years later in 1939 and Polanski spent the next six years of his childhood mostly on his own, trying to survive the ongoing Holocaust.
Polanski’s first feature-length film, Knife in the Water (1962), made in Poland, was nominated for a United States Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.[3] He has since received five more Oscar nominations, along with two BAFTAs, four Césars, a Golden Globe Award and the Palme d’Or of the Cannes Film Festival in France. In the United Kingdom he directed three films, beginning with Repulsion (1965). In 1968 he moved to the United States and cemented his status by directing the horror film Rosemary’s Baby (1968).
A turning point in his life took place in 1969, when his pregnant wife, Sharon Tate, along with four friends, were brutally murdered by members of the Manson Family.[4] Following her death, Polanski returned to Europe and eventually continued directing. He made Macbeth (1971) in England and back in Hollywood, Chinatown (1974), which was nominated for eleven Academy Awards.[5]
In 1977, Polanski was arrested and charged with the rape of a 13-year-old model during a photo session. He subsequently pled guilty to the charge of statutory rape.[6] He was released from prison after serving 42 days, and as part of an apparent plea bargain, was to be put on probation. When he learned that the judge changed his mind and planned to reject the plea bargain, he fled to Paris before sentencing.[7]
In Europe, Polanski continued to make films, including Tess (1979), starring aspiring actress, Nastassja Kinski. It won France’s César Awards for Best Picture and Best Director, and received three Oscars. He later produced and directed The Pianist (2002), starring Adrien Brody, in a World War II true story drama about a Jewish-Polish musician. The film won three Academy Awards including Best Director, along with numerous international awards. He also directed Oliver Twist (2005), a story which parallels his own life as a “young boy attempting to triumph over adversity”.[8] He was awarded Best Director for The Ghost Writer (2010) at the 23rd European Film Awards[9] Having made films in Poland, the United Kingdom, France, and the United States, he is considered one of the few international filmmakers.
Contents  [hide] 
1
Early life
1.1
World War II
1.2
After the war
1.3
Introduction to movies
2
Early career in Poland
3
Film director
3.1
1960s
3.2
1970s
3.3
1980s
3.4
1990s
3.5
2000s
3.6
2010s
4
Marriages and relationships
4.1
Barbara Kwiatkowska-Lass
4.2
Sharon Tate
4.3
Emmanuelle Seigner
5
Legal history
5.1
Sexual abuse case
5.2
Vanity Fair libel case
6
Filmography
6.1
Director
6.2
Actor
6.3
Writer
7
Awards and nominations
7.1
Other awards
8
References
8.1
Notes
8.2
Bibliography
9
External links
Early life
Polanski was born in Paris, the son of Bula (née Katz-Przedborska)[10] and Ryszard Polański,[11] a painter and manufacturer of sculptures, who had changed his family name from Liebling.[12] His mother had a daughter, Annette, by her previous husband. Annette managed to survive Auschwitz, where her mother died, and left Poland forever for France.[13] Polański’s father was Jewish and originally from Poland; Polański’s mother, born in Russia, had been raised Roman Catholic and was of half-Jewish ancestry.[14][15][16] Polański’s parents were both agnostics.[17] Polański, influenced by his education in the People’s Republic of Poland, said “I’m an atheist” in an interview about his film, Rosemary’s Baby.[18]
World War II
The Polański family moved back to the Polish city of Kraków in 1936,[11] and were living there when World War II began with the invasion of Poland. Kraków was soon occupied by the German forces, and Nazi racial purity laws made the Polańskis targets of persecution, forcing them into the Kraków Ghetto, along with thousands of the city’s Jews.[19] Around the age of six, he attended primary school for only a few weeks, until “all the Jewish children were abruptly expelled,” writes biographer Christopher Sandford. That initiative was soon followed by the requirement that all Jewish children over the age of twelve wear white armbands with a blue Star of David imprinted for visual identification. After he was expelled, he would not be allowed to enter another classroom for the next six years.[11]:18[20] Polanski then witnessed both the ghettoization of Kraków’s Jews into a compact area of the city, and the subsequent deportation of all the ghetto’s Jews to concentration camps, including watching as his father was taken away. He remembers from age six, one of his first experiences of the terrors to follow:
I had just been visiting my grandmother … when I received a foretaste of things to come. At first I didn’t know what was happening. I simply saw people scattering in all directions. Then I realized why the street had emptied so quickly. Some women were being herded along it by German soldiers. Instead of running away like the rest, I felt compelled to watch.
One older woman at the rear of the column couldn’t keep up. A German officer kept prodding her back into line, but she fell down on all fours, … Suddenly a pistol appeared in the officer’s hand. There was a loud bang, and blood came welling out of her back. I ran straight into the nearest building, squeezed into a smelly recess beneath some wooden stairs, and didn’t come out for hours. I developed a strange habit: clenching my fists so hard that my palms became permanently calloused. I also woke up one morning to find that I had wet my bed.[21]

Polish Jews captured by Germans during the suppression of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising
His father was transferred, along with thousands of other Jews, to Mauthausen, a group of 49 German concentration camps in Austria. His mother was taken to Auschwitz and was killed soon after arriving. The forced exodus took place immediately after the German liquidation of the Kraków ghetto, a true-life backdrop to Polanski’s film, The Pianist (2002). Polanski, who was then hiding from the Germans, remembered seeing his father being marched off with a long line of people. Polanski tried getting closer to his father to ask him what was happening, and managed to get within a few yards. His father saw him, but afraid his son might be spotted by the German soldiers, whispered (in Polish), “Get lost!”[11]:24
Polański escaped the Kraków Ghetto in 1943 and survived by assuming the name Romek Wilk, with the help of some Polish Roman Catholic families including Mrs Sermak who promised his father to shelter him.[11]:21 He attended church, learned to recite Catholic prayers by heart, and behaved outwardly as a Roman Catholic, although he was never baptized. His efforts to blend into a Catholic household failed miserably at least once, when the parish priest visiting the family posed questions to him one-on-one about the catechism: “You aren’t one of us”, he said.[22] The punishment for helping a Jew in Poland was death.[23]
As he roamed the countryside trying to survive in a Poland now occupied by German troops, he witnessed many horrors, such as being “forced to take part in a cruel and sadistic game in which German soldiers took shots at him for target practice.”[8] Author Ian Freer concludes that his constant childhood fears and dread of violence have contributed to the “tangible atmospheres he conjures up on film.”[8]
By the time the war ended in 1945, a fifth of the Polish population had been killed,[24] with the vast majority of the victims being civilians. Of those deaths, 3 million were of Polish Jews, which accounted for 90% of the country’s Jewish population.[25] According to Sandford, Polanski would use the memory of his mother, her dress and makeup style, as a physical model for Faye Dunaway’s character in his film Chinatown (1974).[11]:13
After the war
After the war, he was reunited with his father and moved back to Kraków. His father remarried 21 December 1946 to Wanda Zajączkowska (a woman Polanski had never liked) and died of cancer in 1984. Time repaired the family contacts; Polanski visited them in Kraków, and relatives visited him in Hollywood and Paris. Polanski recalls the villages and families he lived with as relatively primitive by European standards:
They were really simple Catholic peasants. This Polish village was like the English village in Tess. Very primitive. No electricity. The kids with whom I lived didn’t know about electricity … they wouldn’t believe me when I told them it was enough to turn on a switch![26]
He stated that “you must live in a Communist country to really understand how bad it can be. Then you will appreciate capitalism.”[26] He also remembered events at the war’s end and his reintroduction to mainstream society when he was 12, forming friendships with other children, such as Roma Ligocka, Ryszard Horowitz and his family.[27]
Introduction to movies
Polanski’s fascination with cinema began very early, when he was around age four or five. He recalls this period in an interview:
Even as a child, I always loved cinema and was thrilled when my parents would take me before the war. Then we were put into the ghetto in Krakòw and there was no cinema, but the Germans often showed newsreels to the people outside the ghetto, on a screen in the market place. And there was one particular corner where you could see the screen through the barbed wire. I remember watching with fascination, although all they were showing was the German army and German tanks, with occasional anti-Jewish slogans inserted on cards.[28]
After the war, he watched films, either at school or at a local cinema, using whatever pocket money he had. Polanski writes, “Most of this went on the movies, but movie seats were dirt cheap, so a little went a long way. I lapped up every kind of film.”[29] As time went on, movies became more than an escape into entertainment, as he explains:
Movies were becoming an absolute obsession with me. I was enthralled by everything connected with the cinema—not just the movies themselves but the aura that surrounded them. I loved the luminous rectangle of the screen, the sight of the beam slicing through the darkness from the projection booth, the miraculous synchronization of sound and vision, even the dusty smell of the tip-up seats. More than anything else though, I was fascinated by the actual mechanics of the process.[30]
He was above all influenced by Odd Man Out (1947) – “I still consider it as one of the best movies I’ve ever seen and a film which made me want to pursue this career more than anything else… I always dreamt of doing things of this sort or that style. To a certain extent I must say that I somehow perpetuate the ideas of that movie in what I do.”[31]
Early career in Poland

Polanski’s star on the Łódź walk of fame
Polanski attended the National Film School in Łódź, the third-largest city in Poland.[32] In the 1950s, Polanski took up acting, appearing in Andrzej Wajda’s Pokolenie (A Generation, 1954) and in the same year in Silik Sternfeld’s Zaczarowany rower (Enchanted Bicycle or Magical Bicycle). Polanski’s directorial debut was also in 1955 with a short film Rower (Bicycle). Rower is a semi-autobiographical feature film, believed to be lost, which also starred Polanski. It refers to his real-life violent altercation with a notorious Kraków felon, Janusz Dziuba, who arranged to sell Polanski a bicycle, but instead beat him badly and stole his money. In real life, the offender was arrested while fleeing after fracturing Polanski’s skull, and executed for three murders, out of eight prior such assaults which he had committed.[33] Several other short films made during his study at Łódź gained him considerable recognition, particularly Two Men and a Wardrobe (1958) and When Angels Fall (1959). He graduated in 1959.[32]
Film director
1960s
Knife in the Water (1962)
Polanski’s first feature-length film, Knife in the Water, was also one of the first significant Polish films after the Second World War that did not have a war theme. Scripted by Jerzy Skolimowski, Jakub Goldberg, and Polanski,[34] Knife in the Water is about a wealthy, unhappily married couple who decide to take a mysterious hitchhiker with them on a weekend boating excursion. A dark and unsettling work, Polanski’s debut feature subtly evinces a profound pessimism about human relationships with regard to the psychological dynamics and moral consequences of status envy and sexual jealousy. Knife in the Water was a major commercial success in the West and gave Polanski an international reputation. The film also earned its director his first Academy Award nomination (Best Foreign Language Film) in 1963. Leon Niemczyk, who played Andrzej, was the only professional actor in the film. Jolanta Umecka, who played Krystyna, was discovered by Polanski at a swimming pool.[35]
Polanski left then-communist Poland and moved to France, where he had already made two notable short films in 1961: The Fat and the Lean and Mammals. While in France, Polanski contributed one segment (“La rivière de diamants”) to the French-produced omnibus film, Les plus belles escroqueries du monde (English title: The Beautiful Swindlers) in 1964. (He has since had the segment removed from all releases of the film.)[36] However, Polanski found that in the early 1960s, the French film industry was xenophobic and generally unwilling to support a rising filmmaker of foreign origin.[37]
Repulsion (1965)
Polanski made three feature films in England, based on original scripts written by himself and Gérard Brach, a frequent collaborator. Repulsion (1965) is a psychological horror film focusing on a young Belgian woman named Carol (Catherine Deneuve), who is living in London with her older sister (Yvonne Furneaux). The film’s themes, situations, visual motifs, and effects clearly reflect the influence of early surrealist cinema as well as horror movies of the 1950s—particularly Luis Buñuel’s Un chien Andalou, Jean Cocteau’s The Blood of a Poet, Henri-Georges Clouzot’s Diabolique and Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho.
Cul-de-sac (1966)
Cul-de-sac (1966) is a bleak nihilist tragicomedy filmed on location in Northumberland. The tone and premise of the film owe a great deal to Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot, along with aspects of Harold Pinter’s The Birthday Party.
The Fearless Vampire Killers/Dance of the Vampires (1967)
The Fearless Vampire Killers (1967) (known by its original title, “Dance of the Vampires” in most countries outside the United States) is a parody of vampire films. The plot concerns a buffoonish professor and his clumsy assistant, Alfred (played by Polanski), who are traveling through Transylvania in search of vampires. The ironic and macabre ending is considered classic Polanski. The Fearless Vampire Killers was Polanski’s first feature to be photographed in color with the use of Panavision lenses, and included a striking visual style with snow-covered, fairy-tale landscapes, similar to the work of Soviet fantasy filmmakers. In addition, the richly textured color schemes of the settings evoke the magical, kaleidoscopic paintings of the great Belarusian-Jewish artist Marc Chagall, who provides the namesake for the innkeeper in the film. The film was written for Jack MacGowran, who played the lead role of Professor Abronsius.
Polanski met Sharon Tate while the film was being made, where she played the role of the local innkeeper’s daughter. They were married in London on 20 January 1968.[38] Shortly after they married, Polanski, with Tate at his side during a documentary film, described the demands of young movie viewers who he said always wanted to see something “new” and “different”.[39]
Rosemary’s Baby (1968)
Paramount studio head Robert Evans brought Polanski to America ostensibly to direct the film Downhill Racer, but told Polanski that he really wanted to him to read the horror novel Rosemary’s Baby by Ira Levin[40] to see if a film could be made out of it.[41] Polanski read it non-stop through the night and the following morning decided he wanted to write as well as direct it. He wrote the 272-page screenplay for the film in slightly longer than three weeks.[42] The film, Rosemary’s Baby (1968), was a box-office success and became his first Hollywood production, thereby establishing his reputation as a major commercial filmmaker. The film, a horror-thriller set in trendy Manhattan, is about Rosemary Woodhouse (Mia Farrow),[43] a young housewife who is impregnated by the devil. Polanski’s screenplay adaptation earned him a second Academy Award nomination.
On 9 August 1969, while Polanski was working in London, his wife, Sharon Tate, and four other people were murdered at the Polanskis’ residence in Los Angeles.[44]
1970s
Macbeth (1971)
Polanski adapted Macbeth into a screenplay with the Shakespeare expert Kenneth Tynan.[45] Jon Finch and Francesca Annis played the main characters.[46] Hugh Hefner and Playboy Productions funded the 1971 film, which opened in New York and was screened in Playboy Theater.[47] Hefner was credited as executive producer, and the film was listed as a “Playboy Production”.[48] It was controversial because of Lady Macbeth’s being nude in a scene,[46] and received an X rating because of its graphic violence and nudity.[49] In his autobiography, Polanski wrote that he wanted to be true to the violent nature of the work, and that he had been aware that his first project following Tate’s murder would be subject to scrutiny and probable criticism regardless of the subject matter; if he had made a comedy he would have been perceived as callous.[50]
What? (1973)
Written by Polanski and previous collaborator Gérard Brach, What? (1973) is a mordant absurdist comedy loosely based on the themes of Alice in Wonderland and Henry James. The film is a rambling shaggy dog story about the sexual indignities that befall a winsome young American hippie woman hitchhiking through Europe.
Chinatown (1974)
Polanski was an outstanding director. There was no question, after three days seeing him operate, that here was a really top talent.
co-star John Huston[51]
Polanski returned to Hollywood in 1973 to direct Chinatown (1974) for Paramount Pictures. The film is widely considered to be one of the finest American mystery crime movies, inspired by the real-life California Water Wars, a series of disputes over southern California water at the beginning of the 20th century.[52]
It was nominated for 11 Academy Awards, including those for actors Jack Nicholson and Faye Dunaway. Robert Towne won for Best Original Screenplay.[5] It also had actor-director John Huston in a supporting role,[53] and was the last film Polanski directed in the United States. In 1991, the film was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being “culturally, historically or aesthetically significant” and it is frequently listed as among the best in world cinema.[54][55][56]
The Tenant (1976)
Polanski returned to Paris for his next film, The Tenant (1976), which was based on a 1964 novel by Roland Topor, a French writer of Polish-Jewish origin. In addition to directing the film, Polanski also played a leading role of a timid Polish immigrant living in Paris. Together with Repulsion and Rosemary’s Baby, The Tenant can be seen as the third installment in a loose trilogy of films called the “Apartment Trilogy” that explore the themes of social alienation and psychic and emotional breakdown.[57]
In 1978, Polanski became a fugitive from American justice and could no longer work in countries where he might face arrest or extradition.
Tess (1979)
He dedicated his next film, Tess (1979), to the memory of his late wife, Sharon Tate. It was Tate who first suggested he read Tess of the d’Urbervilles, which she thought would make a good film; he subsequently expected her to star in it.[58] Nearly a decade after Tate’s death, he met Nastassja Kinski, a model and aspiring young actress who had already been in a number of European films. He offered her the starring role, which she accepted. Her father was Klaus Kinski, a leading German actor, who had introduced her to films.
Because the role required having a local dialect, Polanski sent her to London for five months of study and to spend time in the Dorset countryside to get a flavor of the region.[58] In the film, Kinski starred opposite Peter Firth and Leigh Lawson.[59]
[Polanski] took a lot of time, two years, preparing me for that film…. He was strict with me, but in a good way. He made me feel smart, that I could do things.
Nastassja Kinski[60]
Tess was shot in the north of France instead of Hardy’s England and became the most expensive film made in France up to that time. Ultimately, it proved a financial success and was well received by both critics and the public. Polanski won France’s César Awards for Best Picture and Best Director and received his fourth Academy Award nomination (and his second nomination for Best Director). The film received three Oscars: best cinematography, best art direction, best costume design, and was nominated for best picture.
At the time, there were rumors that Polanski and Kinski became romantically involved, but she says the rumors are untrue; they were never lovers or had an affair.[61] She admits that “there was a flirtation. There could have been a seduction, but there was not. He had respect for me.”[62] She also recalls his influence on her while filming: “He was really a gentleman, not at all like the things I had heard. He introduced me to beautiful books, plays, movies. He educated me.”[58] On an emotional level, she said years later that “he was one of the people in my life who cared, … who took me seriously and gave me a lot of strength.”[61] She told David Letterman more about her experience working with Polanski during an interview.[63]
1980s
In 1981, Polanski directed and co-starred (as Mozart) in a stage production of Peter Shaffer’s play Amadeus, first in Warsaw, then in Paris.[64][65] The play was again directed by Polanski, in Milan, in 1999.[66]
Pirates (1986)
Nearly seven years passed before Polanski’s next film, Pirates, a lavish period piece starring Walter Matthau as Captain Red, which the director intended as an homage to the beloved Errol Flynn swashbucklers of his childhood. Captain Red’s henchman, Jean Baptiste, was played by Cris Campion. The film is about a rebellion the two led on a ship called the Neptune, in the seventeenth century. The screenplay was written by Polanski, Gérard Brach, and John Brownjohn. The film was shot on location in Tunisia,[67] using a full-sized pirate vessel constructed for the production. It was a financial and critical failure, recovering a small fraction of its production budget and garnering a single Academy Award nomination.[68]
Frantic (1988)
Frantic (1988) was a Hitchcockian suspense-thriller starring Harrison Ford[69] and the actress/model Emmanuelle Seigner,[70] who later became Polanski’s wife. The film follows an ordinary tourist in Paris whose wife is kidnapped. He attempts, hopelessly, to go through the Byzantine bureaucratic channels to deal with her disappearance, but finally takes matters into his own hands.
1990s

Polanski with wife Emmanuelle Seigner at the 1992 Cannes Film Festival.
Polanski followed this with the dark psycho-sexual film Bitter Moon (1992), followed by a film of the acclaimed play Death and the Maiden (1994) starring Sigourney Weaver.
In 1997, Polanski directed a stage version of his 1967 film The Fearless Vampire Killers, which debuted in Vienna[71] followed by successful runs in Stuttgart, Hamburg, Berlin, and Budapest. On 11 March 1998, Polanski was elected a member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts.[72]
The Ninth Gate (1999)
The Ninth Gate is a thriller based on the novel El Club Dumas by Arturo Perez-Reverte and starring Johnny Depp. The movie’s plot is based on the idea that an ancient text called “The Nine Gates of the Kingdom of Shadow”, authored by Aristide Torchia along with Lucifer, is the key to raising Satan.[73]
2000s

Polanski at the 2002 Cannes Film Festival for The Pianist
The Pianist (2002)
In 2001, Polanski filmed The Pianist, an adaptation of the World War II autobiography of the same name by Polish-Jewish musician Władysław Szpilman. Szpilman’s experiences as a persecuted Jew in Poland during World War II were reminiscent of those of Polanski and his family. While Szpilman and Polanski escaped the concentration camps, their families did not, eventually perishing.
When Warsaw, Poland, was chosen for the 2002 premiere of The Pianist, “the country exploded with pride.” According to reports, numerous former communists came to the screening and “agreed that it was a fantastic film.”[74]
In May 2002, the film won the Palme d’Or (Golden Palm) award at the Cannes Film Festival,[75] as well as Césars for Best Film and Best Director, and later the 2002 Academy Award for Directing. Because Polanski would have been arrested in the United States, he did not attend the Academy Awards ceremony in Hollywood. After the announcement of the Best Director Award, Polanski received a standing ovation from most of those present in the theater. Actor Harrison Ford accepted the award for Polanski, and then presented the Oscar to him at the Deauville Film Festival five months later in a public ceremony.[76] Polanski later received the Crystal Globe award for outstanding artistic contribution to world cinema at the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival in 2004.
Oliver Twist (2005)
Oliver Twist is an adaptation of Dickens’s classic, written by The Pianist’s Ronald Harwood and shot in Prague.[77] Polanski said in interviews that he made the film as something he could show his children, and that the life of the young scavenger mirrored his own life, fending for himself in World War II Poland.

Polanski and Spanish writer Diego Moldes (es), Madrid 2005
2010s
The Ghost Writer (2010)
The Ghost Writer, a thriller focusing on a ghostwriter working on the memoirs of a character based loosely on former British prime minister Tony Blair, swept the European Film Awards in 2010, winning six awards, including best movie, director, actor and screenplay.[78] When it premiered at the 60th Berlinale in February 2010, Polanski won a Silver Bear for Best Director,[79] and in February 2011, it won four César Awards, France’s version of the Academy Awards.[80]
The film is based on a novel by British writer Robert Harris. Harris and Polanski had previously worked for many months on a film of Harris’s earlier novel Pompeii, a novel that was actually inspired by Polanski’s Chinatown.[81] They had completed a script for Pompeii and were nearing production when the film was cancelled due to a looming actors’ strike in September 2007.[82] After that film fell apart, they moved on to Harris’s novel, The Ghost, and adapted it for the screen together.
The cast includes Ewan McGregor as the writer and Pierce Brosnan as former British Prime Minister Adam Lang. The film was shot on locations in Germany.[83]
In the United States, film critic Roger Ebert included it in his top 10 pick for 2010, and states that “this movie is the work of a man who knows how to direct a thriller. Smooth, calm, confident, it builds suspense instead of depending on shock and action.”[84] Co-star Ewan McGregor agrees, saying about Polanski that “he’s a legend… I’ve never examined a director and the way that they work, so much before. He’s brilliant, just brilliant, and absolutely warrants his reputation as a great director.”[85]

At the premiere of Carnage in Paris, November 2011
Carnage (2011)
Polanski shot Carnage in February/March 2011. The film is a screen version of Yasmina Reza’s play God of Carnage, a comedy about the relationship between two couples after their children get in a fight at school and the selfishness of everyone, which eventually leads to chaos. It stars Kate Winslet, Jodie Foster, Christoph Waltz and John C. Reilly. Though set in New York, it was shot in Paris.[86] The film had its world premiere on 9 September 2011 at the Venice Film Festival and was released in the United States by Sony Pictures Classics on 16 December 2011.
Co-stars Jodie Foster and Kate Winslet commented about Polanski’s directing style. According to Foster, “He has a very, very definitive style about how he likes it done. He decides everything. He decided every lens. Every prop. Everything. It’s all him.”[87] Winslet adds that “Roman is one of the most extraordinary men I’ve ever met. The guy is 77 years old. He has an effervescent quality to him. He’s very joyful about his work, which is infectious. He likes to have a small crew, to the point that, when I walked on the set, my thought was, ‘My God, this is it?’”[88] Also noting that style of directing, New York Film Festival director Richard Pena, during the American premiere of the film, called Polanski “a poet of small spaces… in just a couple of rooms he can conjure up an entire world, an entire society.”[89]
Polanski makes an uncredited cameo appearance as a neighbor.
Venus in Fur (2013)
Polanski’s French-language adaptation of the award-winning play Venus in Fur, stars his wife Emmanuelle Seigner and Mathieu Amalric. Polanski worked with the play’s author, David Ives, on the screenplay.[90] The film was shot from December 2012 to February 2013[91] in French and is Polanski’s first non-English language feature film in forty years.[92] The film premiered in competition at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival[93] on 25 May 2013.
Based on a True Story (2017)
Polanski’s next film is Based on a True Story, an adaptation of the French novel by bestselling author Delphine de Vignan.[94] The film stars Eva Green and Emmanuelle Seigner and follows a writer (Seigner) struggling to complete a new novel, while followed by an obsessed fan (Green). The film started production in November 2016 from a script adapted by Polanski and Olivier Assayas.[95] It will premiere out of competition at the 2017 Cannes Film Festival.[96]
D (2018)
Polanski is currently preparing to direct D, a film about the notorious Dreyfus affair in the 19th century, in which one of the few Jewish members of the French Army’s general staff was wrongly convicted of passing military secrets to the German Empire and sent to Devil’s Island, only to be acquitted 12 years later. The film is written by Robert Harris, who is working with Polanski for the third time.[97] Although set in Paris, the film was first scheduled to shoot in Warsaw in 2014, for economic reasons.[98] However, production was postponed after Polanski moved to Poland for filming and the U.S. Government filed extradition papers. The Polish government eventually rejected them, by which point new French film tax credits had been introduced, allowing the film to shoot on location in Paris. It is budgeted at 60 million euros and was set to start production in July 2016,[99] however its production has been postponed again until May 2017, as Polanski is waiting on the availability of his star, whose name has not yet been announced.[100]
Marriages and relationships
Barbara Kwiatkowska-Lass
Polanski’s first wife, Barbara Lass (née Kwiatkowska),[11] was a Polish actress who also starred in Polanski’s 1959 When Angels Fall.[101] The couple were married in 1959 and divorced in 1961.[11]
Sharon Tate

Sharon Tate in the trailer for the film Eye of the Devil.
Polanski met rising actress Sharon Tate while filming The Fearless Vampire Killers, and during the production, the two of them began dating.[102] On 20 January 1968, Polanski married Tate in London.[103]
In August 1969, while Polanski was in Europe working on a film, Tate was murdered along with four of their friends at their home in Los Angeles by members of Charles Manson’s “family,” a group of young, gullible, and mostly female followers. Tate was pregnant at the time of her murder.
Manson, along with members of his “family”, was arrested in late 1969, and eventually tried and found guilty in 1971 of 27 counts, including first-degree murder, an event now called the Manson murders. Because at the time it was one of the most “horrific crimes in modern history,” the crime and trial of Manson and his followers became a media sensation, leading to movies, documentaries and bestselling books.[104]
Polanski has said that his absence on the night of the murders is the greatest regret of his life.[105] In his autobiography, he wrote, “Sharon’s death is the only watershed in my life that really matters”, and commented that her murder changed his personality from a “boundless, untroubled sea of expectations and optimism” to one of “ingrained pessimism … eternal dissatisfaction with life”.[106] In his autobiography, Polanski described his brief time with Tate as the best years of his life.
Polanski was also left with a very negative impression of the press, which he felt was interested in sensationalizing the lives of the victims, and indirectly himself, to attract readers. He was shocked by the lack of sympathy expressed in various news stories:
I had long known that it was impossible for a journalist to convey 100 percent of the truth, but I didn’t realize to what extent the truth is distorted, both by the intentions of the journalist and by neglect. I don’t mean just the interpretations of what happened; I also mean the facts. The reporting about Sharon and the murders was virtually criminal. Reading the papers, I could not believe my eyes. I could not believe my eyes! They blamed the victims for their own murders. I really despise the press. I didn’t always. The press made me despise it.[28]
Among the media-generated sensationalism were rumors that claimed Tate and her visitors were taking drugs, despite the coroner’s announcing that no traces of drugs or nicotine were found after Tate’s autopsy.[107] For years afterward, notes Sandford, “reporters openly speculated about the Polanskis’ home life” and their personalities in order to create more media gossip about the private lives of Hollywood celebrities.[11]:2
Emmanuelle Seigner
In 1989, Polanski married French actress Emmanuelle Seigner, 33 years his junior. They have two children, daughter Morgane and son Elvis.[108] Polanski and his children speak Polish at home.[109]
Legal history
Sexual abuse case
Main article: Roman Polanski sexual abuse case
On 11 March 1977, three years after making Chinatown, Polanski was arrested at Jack Nicholson’s home for the sexual assault of 13-year-old Samantha Gailey, who was modeling for Polanski during a Vogue magazine photo shoot around the pool. Polanski was indicted on six counts of criminal behavior, including rape.[108][110] At his arraignment, he pleaded not guilty to all charges. Many executives in Hollywood came to his defense.[111] Gailey’s attorney next arranged a plea bargain in which five of the six charges would be dismissed, and Polanski accepted.[112]
At the time of the incident, Nicholson was out of town making a film, but his steady girlfriend, actress Anjelica Huston, had dropped by unannounced to pick up some items. She heard Polanski in the other room say “We’ll be right out.”[113] Polanski then came out with Gailey and he introduced her to Huston, and they chatted about Nicholson’s two large dogs which were sitting nearby. Huston recalled Gailey was wearing platform heels and appeared quite tall.[113]
After a brief conversation, Polanski had packed up his camera gear and Huston saw them drive off in his car. Huston told police the next day, after Polanski was arrested, that she “had witnessed nothing untoward” and never saw them together in the other room.[113] Gailey learned afterwards that Huston had recently broken up with Nicholson, but stopped by to pick up some belongings.[114]

Polanski in 2007
As a result of the plea bargain, Polanski pleaded guilty to the charge of “Unlawful Sexual Intercourse with a minor,”[115][116] and was ordered to undergo 90 days of psychiatric evaluation at California Institution for Men at Chino.[117] Upon release from prison after 42 days, Polanski agreed to the plea bargain, his penalty to be time served along with probation. However, he learned afterward that the judge, Laurence J. Rittenband, had told some friends that he was going to disregard the plea bargain and sentence Polanski to 50 years in prison:[116][118] “I’ll see this man never gets out of jail,” he told Polanski’s friend, screenwriter Howard E. Koch.[119] Gailey’s attorney confirmed the judge changed his mind after he personally met with the judge in his chambers:
He was going to sentence Polanski, rather than to time served, to fifty years. What the judge did was outrageous. We had agreed to a plea bargain and the judge had approved it.[119][120]
Polanski’s attorney told Polanski that “the judge could no longer be trusted…” that the judge’s representations were “worthless”.[121] Polanski decided not to appear at his sentencing. He told his friend, director Dino De Laurentis, “I’ve made up my mind. I’m getting out of here.”[119] On the day before sentencing in 1978, Polanski left the country.[122] As a French citizen, he has been protected from extradition and has lived mostly in France since then.[123] However, since he fled the United States before final sentencing, the charges are still pending.
The victim, now married and going by the name Samantha Geimer, stated in an interview with Larry King that the police and media had been slow at the time of the assault to believe her account, which she attributed to the social climate of the era.[124] In 1988 she sued Polanski. Among other things, the suit alleged sexual assault, false imprisonment, seduction of a minor, and intentional infliction of emotional distress. In 1993, Polanski agreed to settle with Geimer. In August 1996, Polanski still owed her $604,416; Geimer and her lawyers later[when?] confirmed that the settlement was completed.[124][125]
On 26 September 2009, Polanski was arrested while in Switzerland at the request of United States authorities.[126] The arrest brought renewed attention to the case and stirred controversy, particularly in the United States and Europe.[118] Polanski was defended by many prominent individuals, including Hollywood celebrities and European artists and politicians, who called for his release.[127] American public opinion was reported to run against him, however,[128][129] and polls in France and Poland showed that strong majorities favored his extradition to the United States.[130][131]
Polanski was jailed near Zürich for two months, then put under house arrest at his home in Gstaad while awaiting decision of appeals fighting extradition.[132] On 12 July 2010, the Swiss rejected the United States’ request, declared Polanski a “free man” and released him from custody.[133] He remains the subject of an Interpol red notice issued in 2005 at the request of the United States.[134]
During a television interview on 10 March 2011, Geimer blamed the media, reporters, the court, and the judge for causing “way more damage to [her] and [her] family than anything Roman Polanski has ever done”, and opined that the judge was using her and Polanski for the media exposure.[135]
In January 2014, newly uncovered emails by a Los Angeles County Superior Court judge[who?] from 2008, indicated that if Polanski returned to the United States for a hearing, the conduct of the judge who had originally presided over the case might require that Polanski be freed. These emails were related to a 2008 documentary film by Marina Zenovich.[136][137] In late October 2014, Polanski was questioned by prosecutors in Kraków.[138]
On 30 October 2015, Polish judge Dariusz Mazur denied a request by the United States to extradite Polanski (a dual French-Polish citizen) for a full trial, claiming that it would be “obviously unlawful.”[139] The Kraków prosecutor’s office declined to challenge the court’s ruling, agreeing that Polanski had served his punishment and did not need to face a U.S. court again.[140] However, Poland’s national justice ministry took up the appeal, arguing that sexual abuse of minors should be prosecuted regardless of the suspect’s accomplishments or the length of time since the suspected crime took place.[141] In a December 2016 decision, the Supreme Court of Poland dismissed the government’s appeal, holding that the prosecutor general had failed to prove misconduct or flagrant legal error on the part of the lower court.[142]
Preparations for a movie he was working on about the Dreyfus affair had been stalled by the extradition request.[97][143]
Documentary films
In 2008, the documentary film by Marina Zenovich, Roman Polanski: Wanted and Desired, was released in Europe and the United States where it won numerous awards.[144] The film focuses on the judge in the case and the possible reasons why he changed his mind. It includes interviews with people involved in the case, including the victim, Geimer, and the prosecutor, Roger Gunson. Geimer said that the judge “didn’t care what happened” to her or Polanski, but “was orchestrating some little show,”[121] while Gunson added, “I’m not surprised that Polanski left under those circumstances, … it was going to be a real circus.”[121][145]
Former DA David Wells, whose statements were the most damning against Polanski, and who said he advised the judge to imprison Polanski, admitted that he lied about those statements, and said that to the press to “play up” his own role.[146][147]
In December 2009, a California appellate court discussed the film’s allegations as it denied Polanski’s request to have the case dismissed. While saying they were “deeply concerned” the court, and were “in many cases supported by considerable evidence,” it also found that “(e)ven in light of our fundamental concern about the misconduct … flight was not Polanski’s only option. It was not even his best option.” It said dismissal of the case, which would erase Polanski’s guilty plea, wouldn’t be an “appropriate result,” and that he still had other legal options.[118][148]
In September 2011, the documentary film Roman Polanski: A Film Memoir had its world premiere in Zürich, Switzerland. During an interview in the film, he offers his apology to Geimer: “She is a double victim: My victim, and a victim of the press.”[149] On this occasion, he collected the lifetime achievement award he was to have received at the time of his arrest two years earlier.[150]
Vanity Fair libel case
In 2004, Polanski sued Vanity Fair magazine in London for libel. A 2002 article in the magazine claimed that Polanski promised he would “make another Sharon Tate out of you” in an attempt to seduce a Scandinavian model while he was travelling to Tate’s funeral. He received supporting testimony from Mia Farrow, and Vanity Fair “was unable to prove that the incident occurred.” Polanski was awarded £50,000 in damages plus some of his legal costs.[151]
Filmography
Director
Year
Film
Also known as
Oscar
nominations
Oscar wins
1955
Zaczarowany rower
Bicycle

1957
Morderstwo
A Murderer

Uśmiech zębiczny
A Toothful Smile

Rozbijemy zabawę
Break Up the Dance

1958
Dwaj ludzie z szafą
Two Men and a Wardrobe

1959
Lampa
The Lamp

Gdy spadają anioły
When Angels Fall

1961
Le Gros et le maigre
The Fat and the Lean

Ssaki
Mammals

1962
Nóż w wodzie
Knife in the Water
1

1964
Les plus belles escroqueries du monde[a]
The World’s Most Beautiful Swindlers

1965
Repulsion*

1966
Cul-de-sac

1967
The Fearless Vampire Killers[b]
Dance of the Vampires

1968
Rosemary’s Baby*

2
1
1971
Macbeth

1972
Weekend of a Champion

1972
What?
Diary of Forbidden Dreams

1974
Chinatown

11
1
1976
Le Locataire*
The Tenant

1979
Tess

6
3
1986
Pirates

1

1988
Frantic

1992
Bitter Moon

1994
Death and the Maiden

1999
The Ninth Gate

2002
The Pianist

7
3
2005
Oliver Twist

2007
To Each His Own Cinema[c]

2010
The Ghost Writer

2011
Carnage

2012
A Therapy (Short)

2013
La Vénus à la fourrure
Venus in Fur

2017
D’après une histoire vraie
Based on a True Story

*These movies are part of his “Apartment Trilogy”.[57]
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^ Segment: “La rivière de diamants”, included in the theatrical release, but removed from all current presentations of the film at Polanski’s request.
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^ Also called The Fearless Vampire Killers or: Pardon Me, Madam, but Your Teeth Are in My Neck.
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^ Segment: “Cinéma erotique”.
Actor
Trzy opowieści (also known as Three Stories) as Genek ‘The Little’ (segment “Jacek”, 1953)
Zaczarowany rower (also known as Magical Bicycle) as Adas (1955)
Rower (also known as Bicycle) as the Boy who wants to buy a bicycle (1955)
Pokolenie (also known as A Generation) as Mundek (1955)
Nikodem Dyzma as the Boy at Hotel (1956)
Wraki (also known as The Wrecks, 1957)
Koniec nocy (also known as End of the Night) as the Little One (1957)
Dwaj ludzie z szafą (also known as Two Men and a Wardrobe) as the Bad boy (1958)
Zadzwońcie do mojej żony? (also known as Call My Wife) as a Dancer (1958)
Gdy spadają anioły (also known as When Angels Fall Down) as an Old woman (1959)
Lotna as a Musician (1959)
Zezowate szczęście (also known as Bad Luck) as Jola’s Tutor (1960)
Do widzenia, do jutra (also known as Good Bye, Till Tomorrow) as Romek (1960)
Niewinni czarodzieje (also known as Innocent Sorcerers) as Dudzio (1960)
Ostrożnie, Yeti! (also known as Beware of Yeti!, 1961)
Gros et le maigre, Le (also known as The Fat and the Lean) as The Lean (1961)
Samson (1961)
Nóż w wodzie (also known as Knife in the Water) voice of Young Boy (1962)
Repulsion as Spoon Player (1965)
The Fearless Vampire Killers as Alfred, Abronsius’ Assistant (1967)
The Magic Christian as Solitary drinker (1969)
What? as Mosquito (1972)
Chinatown as Man with Knife (1974)
Blood for Dracula (Andy Warhol) as Man in Tavern (1976)
Locataire, Le (also known as The Tenant) as Trelkovsky (1976)
Chassé-croisé (1982)
En attendant Godot (TV) as Lucky (1989)
Back in the USSR as Kurilov (1992)
Una pura formalità (also known as A Pure Formality) as Inspector (1994)
Grosse fatigue (also known as Dead Tired) as Roman Polanski (1994)
Hommage à Alfred (also known as Tribute to Alfred Lepetit, 2000)
Zemsta (also known as The Revenge) as Papkin (2002)
Rush Hour 3 as Detective Revi (2007)
Caos calmo (also known as Quiet Chaos (film)) as Steiner (2007)
Writer
Script for A Taste for Women,[152] Scénario: Aimez-vous les femmes? (fr) (1964)
Script for A Day at the Beach (1970) based on the 1962 novel of the same name by Simon Heere Heeresma.[153]
Polanski’s autobiography, Roman by Polanski (1985), sometimes known as Roman.
Awards and nominations

Polanski in 2011 at the Zürich Film Festival
Year
Award
Category
Work
Result
1965
Berlin Film Festival
Silver Berlin Bear-Extraordinary Jury Prize
Repulsion
Won[154]
1966
Berlin Film Festival
Golden Bear
Cul-de-sac
Won[155]
1968
Academy Award
Best Screenplay
Rosemary’s Baby
Nominated
1974
Academy Award
Academy Award for Best Director
Chinatown
Nominated
Golden Globe Awards
Golden Globe Award for Best Director
Won[156]
British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA)
Best Direction
Won[157]
1979
César Award
César Award for Best Picture
Tess
Won[158]
César Award for Best Director
Won[158]
Academy Award
Best Director
Nominated
Golden Globe Awards
Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Film
Won[159]
Golden Globe Award for Best Director—Motion Picture
Nominated
2002
Cannes Film Festival
Palme d’Or
The Pianist
Won[75]
British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA)
Best Film
Won[160]
Best Director
Won[160]
Academy Awards
Best Director
Won[161]
Best Picture
Nominated
César Award
César Award for Best Director
Won[158]
César Award for Best Film
Won[158]
2004
Karlovy Vary International Film Festival
Crystal Globe for outstanding artistic contribution to world cinema

Won
Argentine Film Critics Association
Best Foreign Film
The Pianist
Nominated
2009
Zürich Film Festival Golden Icon Award
Lifetime achievement

Won[162][54][163]
2010
Berlin Film Festival
Silver Bear for Best Director
The Ghost Writer
Won[164]
European Film Awards
Best Film
Won[78]
Best Director
Won[78]
Best Screenwriter
Won[78]
Lumières Awards
Best Director
Won[165]
Best Screenwriter
Won[165]
2011
César Award
César Award for Best Director
Won[158]
César Award for Best Screenwriter
Won[158]
2014
César Award
César Award for Best Film
Venus in Fur
Nominated
César Award for Best Director
Won[158]
César Award for Best Screenwriter
Nominated
Other awards
New York Film Critics Circle Awards
1980: Tess nominated for Best Direction
1980: Tess nominated for Best Foreign Film
1974: Chinatown nominated for Best Film
1971: Macbeth nominated for Best Direction
1971: Macbeth nominated for Best Film
1965: Repulsion nominated for Best Direction
1965: Repulsion nominated for Best Screenwriting
Venice Film Festival
1966: Cul De Sac nominated for National Syndication of Italian Film Journalists
1962: Knife in the Water won for Fipresci Prize
References
Notes
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^ “Polish court to decide on Polanski’s extradition on October 30”. 22 September 2016 – via Reuters.
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^ All Movie Guide. “Roman Polanski – Biography”. The New York Times website. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
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^ Ain-Krupa, Julia Roman Polanski: A Life in Exile ABC Clio Santa Barbara California 2010 pages 38–40
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^ “Roman Polanski: Wanted and Desired”. Retrieved 25 January 2009.
^
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a b “Chinatown (1974)”. IMDb.com.
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^ Cieply, Michael (11 October 2009). “In Polanski Case, ’70s Culture Collides With Today”. The New York Times.
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^ “Roman Polanski’s Victim Samantha Geimer Is ‘Pleased’ the Director Won’t Be Extradited, Says She Recovered ‘A Long Time Ago'”, People magazine, 31 October 2015
^
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a b c Freer, Ian. Movie Makers, Quercus (2009) pp. 129–131
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^ “The Winners”. europeanfilmacademy.org. European Film Academy. 4 December 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
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^ “Roman Polański i Emmanuelle Seigner”. Znane Pary. 26 December 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
^
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a b c d e f g h i Sandford, Christopher (2008). Roman Polanski: a biography. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-230-60778-1. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
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^ “Roman Polanski Biography”. Filmreference.com. Retrieved 7 August 2009.
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^ “Biography”. Movies.yahoo.com. Retrieved 18 October 2009.
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^ Bradshaw, Peter (15 July 2005). “profile: Roman Polanski, The Guardian, Guardian Unlimited”. The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 August 2009.
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^ “Roman Polanski, UXL Newsmakers, Find Articles at BNET.com”. Findarticles.com. 2005. Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2009.
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^ Roman by Polanski, p. 22
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^ “The religion of director Roman Polanski”. Adherents.com. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
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^ Cronin, Paul (2005). Roman Polanski: Interviews. University Press of Mississippi. p. 17. ISBN 1578067995.
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^ “Kraków Ghetto – Kraków Informer Travel Guide”. Kraków-poland.com. Retrieved 18 October 2009.
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^ Roman Polański (1984). Roman. Morrow (ibidem). p. 93. ISBN 0688026214.
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^ Roman by Polanski, p. 26
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^ Roman Polański (1984). Roman. Morrow (ibidem). p. 73. ISBN 0688026214.
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^ Chesnoff, Richard Z. Pack of Thieves, Anchor Books (1999) p. 175
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^ “U.S. Library of Congress statistics”. Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
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^ Gilbert, Martin, Atlas of the Holocaust, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc, (1993)
^
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a b Glazer, Mitchell. Rolling Stone magazine, 2 April 1981
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^ Roman by Polanski, p. 55
^
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a b Playboy magazine interview, December 1971
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^ Roman by Polanski, p. 37
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^ Roman by Polanski, p. 37-38
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^ Roman Polanski: Interviews. University Press of Mississippi, 2005. ISBN 978-1-57806-800-5. Pages 159, 189.
^
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a b “Pwsftvit”. Filmschool.lodz.pl. Archived from the original on 19 August 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
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^ “Polanski Seeks Sex Case Dismissal – 3 December 2008”. Thesmokinggun.com. 3 December 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2009.
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^ “Polanski and the writing of “Knife in the Water””. Wyborcza.pl. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
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^ Ain-Krupa, Julia Roman Polanski: A Life in Exile ABC Clio Santa Barbara California 2010 page 21
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^ “The World’s Most Beautiful Swindlers – Olive Films”. olivefilms.com. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
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^ Cronin, Paul edited Roman Polanski Interviews University Press of Mississippi 2005 page 105
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^ Roman by Polanski, p. 292.
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^ video:The New Cinema (1968), fair use clip
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^ Ain-Krupa, Julia Roman Polanski: A Life in Exile ABC Clio Santa Barbara California 2010 page 64
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^ Sandford, Christopher Polanski: A Biography 2008 Palgrave McMillan page 109
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^ Sandford, Christopher Polanski: A Biography 2008 Palgrave McMillan page 110
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^ Ain-Krupa, Julia Roman Polanski: A Life in Exile ABC Clio Publishing Santa Barbara California 2010 page 64
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^ Bugliosi, p. 19
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^ Ain-Krupa, Julia Roman Polanski: A Life in Exile ABC Clio Publishing Santa Barbara California 2010 page 79
^
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a b Bate, Jonath & Eric Rasmussen edited Macbeth by William Shakespeare The Royal Shakespeare Company page 132
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^ Ain-Krupa, Julia Roman Polanski: A Life in Exile ABC Clio Santa Barbara California 2010 page 79
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^ Macbeth and its Afterlife: Shakespeare Survey 57 Cambridge University Press 2004 Williams, Deanne Mick Jagger Macbeth page 145
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^ Macbeth and its Afterlife Shakespeare Survey 57 Cambridge University Press 2004 page 145
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^ Roman by Polanski, pp. 339–340
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^ Grobel, Lawrence. The Hustons, Charles Scribner’s Sons, N.Y. (1989) p. 678
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^ “Chinatown”. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
Jump up
^ John Huston Retrospective Trailer: “Chinatown”, Film Society of Lincoln Center
^
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a b Pulver, Andrew (22 October 2010). “Chinatown: the best film of all time”. The Guardian. London.
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^ “100 Greatest Films”. filmsite.org.
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^ “Greatest film ever: Chinatown wins by a nose”. The Sydney Morning Herald. 24 October 2010.
^
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a b Amanda Mae Meyncke (2 July 2008). “Roman Polanski’s Apartment Trilogy Still As Artful As Ever”. Film.com.
^
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a b c “After ‘tess’ and Roman Polanski, Nastassia Kinski Trades Notoriety for L.a. Propriety”, People, 12 April 1981
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^ “Photo of Polanski directing Kinski and Firth”. guim.co.uk.
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^ Welsh, James M., Phillips, Gene D. The Francis Ford Coppola Encyclopedia, Scarecrow Press (2010) p. 154
^
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a b “Nastassja Kinski interview: ‘I’ve had such low self-esteem'”, The Telegraph, U.K., 6 February 2015
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^ “Daddy’s girl”, The Guardian, 2 July 1999
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^ Aflac163 (8 June 2016). “Late Night with David Letterman – Nastassja Kinski”. Retrieved 11 July 2017 – via YouTube.
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^ Sokol, Stanley S. The Polish Biographical Dictionary: Profiles of Nearly 900 Poles Who Have Made Lasting Contributions to World Civilization Bolchazy Carducci Publishers Wauconda, Illinois 1992 page 314
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^ Darnton, Nina (21 July 1981). “Polanski on Polish Stage Amid Political Upheaval”. The New York Times. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
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^ Curti, Stefano (1 November 1999). “Roman Polanski-directed Amadeus Opens in Milan, Nov. 30 – Playbill.com”. Playbill. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
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^ Ain-Krupa, Julia Roman Polanski: A Life in Exile ABC Clio Publishing Santa Barbara California 2010 pages 117–118
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^ Ain-Krupa, Julia Roman Polanski: A Life in Exile ABC Clio Publishing Santa Barbara California 2010 pages 118–119
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^ Ain-Krupa, Julia Roman Polanski: A Life in Exile ABC Clio Publishing Santa Barbara California 2010 page 119
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^ Ain-Krupa, Julia Roman Polanski: A Life in Exile ABC Clio Publishing Santa Barbara California 2010 page 122
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^ Paszylk, Bartlomiej The Pleasure and Pain of Cult Horror Films: An Historical Survey McFarland and Company Jefferson North Carolina page 101
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^ “Entertainment, Polanski joins French elite”. BBC News. 16 December 1999. Retrieved 7 August 2009.
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^ Ain-Krupa, Julia Roman Polanski: A Life in Exile ABC Clio Publishing Santa Barbara California 2010 pages 131–134
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^ “Revelations from Roman Polanski’s Polish Secret Service File” Archived 13 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Die Welt, Worldcrunch news, 13 May 2011
^
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a b “Festival de Cannes: The Pianist”. festival-cannes.com. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
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^ “Harrison Ford Delivers Oscar To Polanski” Archived 27 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine., Associated Press, 9 September 2003
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^ Ain-Krupa, Julia Roman Polanski: A Life in Exile ABC Clio Publishing Santa Barbara California 2010 pages 152–153
^
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a b c d “European Film Awards gives Roman Polanski’s ‘Ghost Writer’ prize for best director and best movie” New York Daily News, 5 December 2010
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^ Booker, M. Keith Historical Dictionary of American Cinema Scarecrow Press 2011 page 285
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^ “French Awards Favor Polanski “, New York Times, 27 February 2011
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^ Beard, Matthew. “Polanski to bring best-seller on last days of Pompeii to the big screen”. The Independent. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
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^ “Polanski pulls out of ‘Pompeii'”. Variety. 11 September 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
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^ “Roman Polanski: “Studio Babelsberg has highly talented and enthusiastic crews”: Studio Babelsberg AG”. Studiobabelsberg.com. Retrieved 7 August 2009.
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^ ” Roger Ebert Reveals His List of the 10 Best Feature Films of 2010″, “Firstshowing.net, 17 December 2010
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^ “Ewan McGregor Interview For The Ghost” Articleslash, 2 January 2011
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^ “Kate raises a glass to Polanski in Paris at end-of-filming party”, Mail Online, 14 March 2011
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^ “Interview with Jodie Foster,” HollywoodChicago.com, 5 May 2011
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^ “Winslet on working with Jodie Foster, Roman Polanski” Inquirer Entertainment, 28 May 2011
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^ “NY Film Festival: Polanski gets his U.S. welcome wagon”, Los Angeles Times, 1 October 2011
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^ “Mathieu Amalric Replaces Louis Garrel in Roman Polanski’s ‘Venus in Fur'”. Blogs.indiewire.com. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
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^ “PRODUCTION: Polanski Shooting a Polish-French Comedy”.
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^ Fleming, Mike. “Roman Polanski To Helm Screen Version Of ‘Venus in Fur'”. Deadline.com. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
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^ “2013 Official Selection”. Cannes. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
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^ Barnes, Henry (19 July 2016). “Roman Polanski and Olivier Assayas join forces on new film”. The Guardian.
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^ Keslassy, Elsa (15 September 2016). “Toronto: Eva Green, Emmanuelle Seigner Star in Roman Polanski-Olivier Assayas’ ‘True Story'”.
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^ Tartaglione, Nancy (27 April 2017). “Cannes Adds Roman Polanski’s ‘Based On A True Story’ & More Films To Lineup”. deadline.com. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
^
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a b McClintock, Pamela (9 May 2012). “Roman Polanski to Direct Dreyfus Affair Drama ‘D'”. The Hollywood Reporter.
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^ “Polanski wants to make next movie in Poland”.
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^ “Polanski tournera ” Dreyfus ” en France”. 24 October 2016.
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^ “Polański delays filming of spy thriller”.
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^ Roman Polanski on IMDb
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^ Bugliosi, Vincent; Curt Gentry (1994). Helter skelter: the true story of the Manson murders (25, illustrated, annotated ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. p. 528. ISBN 978-0-393-08700-0.
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^ McIntosh, Lindsay (19 July 2005). “She knew of my philandering”. The Times Online. London. Retrieved 8 August 2009.
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^ Statman, Alisa. Restless Souls: The Sharon Tate Family’s Account of Stardom, the Manson Murders, and a Crusade for Justice, It Books (2012)
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^ Norman, Neil (25 September 2005). “Roman Polanski: The artful dodger”. The Independent. London: Independent News & Media. Retrieved 4 October 2009.
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^ Roman by Polanski, p. 324
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^ “Sharon Tate’s family bares ‘Restless Souls'”, USA Today, 22 February 2012
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a b Waiting to come in from the cold Vanessa Thorpe, The Observer, 7 December 2008.
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^ “Piękna Francuzka czuje się Polką – Najnowsze informacje – Informacje – portal TVN24.pl – 02.05.2010”. Tvn24.pl. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
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^ “The slow-burning Polanski saga”. BBC News. BBC. 28 September 2009. Retrieved 10 October 2009.
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^ “Polanski Pleads Not Guilty in Drug-Rape Case”. Los Angeles Times. 16 April 1977. Retrieved 1 November 2009. Movie director Roman Polanski pleaded not guilty Friday to a Los Angeles County Grand Jury indictment charging him with drugging and raping a 13-year-old
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^ Romney, Jonathan (5 October 2008). “Roman Polanski: The truth about his notorious sex crime”. The Independent. UK. Retrieved 10 October 2009.
^
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a b c Huston, Anjelica. Watch Me, Simon and Schuster (2014) e-book
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^ Geimer, Samantha. The Girl: A Life in the Shadow of Roman Polanski, Simon and Schuster (2013) p. 78
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^ “California Penal Code § 261.5”. Law.onecle.com. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
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a b Palmer, Brian (28 September 2009). “What’s “Unlawful Sexual Intercourse”?”. Slate. Retrieved 10 October 2009.
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^ Higgins, Alexander G. (19 October 2009). “Court Orders Polanski Kept in Jail”. The New York Times. Retrieved 19 October 2009.
^
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a b c “Polanski loses bid to dismiss rape case” Associated Press, 22 December 2009
^
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a b c Douglas, Edward. Jack: The Great Seducer, Harper Collins (2004) p. 183
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^ “How Roman Polanski Fled Country”, Globe UK, March 18, 2003
^
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a b c Inverviews in film Roman Polanski: Wanted and Desired
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^ Toobin, Jeffrey (14 December 2009). “The Celebrity Defense – Sex, fame, and the case of Roman Polanski”. The New Yorker. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
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^ Dyer, Clare (29 September 2009). “How did the law catch up with Roman Polanski?”. The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 16 October 2009.
^
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a b King, Larry (24 February 2003). “Interview With Samantha Geimer”. CNN. Retrieved 16 October 2009.
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^ Ryan, Harriet; Mozingo, Joe (3 October 2009). “Roman Polanski said he’d pay to end victim’s lawsuit”. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 October 2009.
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^ Agence France-Presse (27 September 2009). “Polanski arrested in Switzerland: festival organisers”. AFP. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
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^ “Outcry over Polanski’s detention” BBC, 28 September 2009.
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^ “In Roman Polanski case, is it Hollywood vs. Middle America?” Los Angeles Times, 1 October 2009.
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^ “French support softens for Polanski, Hollywood divided” Reuters UK, 1 October 2009.
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^ “Politicians face backlash over Polanski” Financial Times, 30 September 2009.
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^ “Polanski in Poland: National Hero or Disgraced Icon?” ABC News, 29 September 2009
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^ “Roman Polanski begins house arrest at his Swiss chalet”. BBC News. 4 December 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
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^ Cumming-Bruce, Nick; Cieply, Michael (12 July 2010). “Swiss Reject U.S. Request to Extradite Polanski”. The New York Times.
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^ Staff (2005). “Wanted Persons: Polanski, Roman Raymond”. Interpol. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
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^ “Polanski Victim Blames Media” ABC News video, 10 March 2011
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^ “Emails Raising Questions About the Polanski Case”, New York Times, 15 January 2014.
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^ Beaumont-Thomas, Ben (17 January 2014). “Conduct of judge in Roman Polanski statutory rape case questioned”. The Guardian. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
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^ “Roman Polanski freed in Poland after US extradition bid – BBC News”. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
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^ MICHAL KOLANKO & MICHAEL CIEPLY (30 October 2015). “Polish Court Turns Down U.S. Request for Roman Polanski’s Extradition”. New York Times. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
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^ JOANNA BERENDT (27 November 2015). “Roman Polanski Will Not Be Extradited to U.S., Poland Says”. New York Times. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
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^ JOANNA BERENDT (6 December 2016). “Roman Polanski Extradition Request Rejected by Poland’s Supreme Court”. New York Times. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
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^ “Sąd Najwyższy oddalił kasację Prokuratora Generalnego w sprawie dopuszczalności ekstradycji Romana Polańskiego IV KK 192/16 (in Polish)”. Supreme Court of the Republic of Poland. 6 December 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
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^ “Poland Will Not Extradite Roman Polanski to the US”, ABC News, 27 November 2015
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^ Dargis, Manohla. “Roman Polanski: Wanted and Desired (2008)”, New York Times movie review, 31 March 2008
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^ “Roman Polanski: The truth about his notorious sex crime” The Independent, U.K. 5 October 2008
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^ Goldsmith, Samuel (30 September 2009). “Former DA admits he lied in ‘Roman Polanski: Wanted And Desired’ film”. NYDailyNews. New York.
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^ O’Neill, Ann (6 January 2010). “Ex-prosecutor admits he lied about Polanski case”. CNN.
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^ “Court Rejects Roman Polanski Appeal” CBS News, 21 December 2009
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^ “Roman Polanski apologizes to victim in documentary”, CNN, 29 September 2011
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^ Roman Polanski gets Zürich film festival award after two-year wait, The Guardian, 28 September 2011
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^ “Polanski Wins Vanity Fair Libel Suit”. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
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^ “A Taste for Women (1964) : Full Cast & Crew”. IMDb.com. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
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^ Cronin, Paul; Polanski, Roman (2005). Roman Polanski: interviews. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-57806-800-5. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
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^ “Berlinale 1965: Prize Winners”. berlinale.de. Retrieved 21 February 2010.
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a b c d e f g “Cesar Awards”. Academie-cinemao.org. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
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^ “1981 Golden Globes”. Ropeofsilicon.com. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
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a b “‘Pianist,’ Kidman win BAFTAs” CNN, 24 February 2003
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^ “Academy Awards 2003”. oscar.go.com. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
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^ “A Tribute to … Roman Polanski”. Zürich Film Festival. Retrieved 29 September 2009.[permanent dead link]
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^ “Polanski arrested in connection with sex charge”. CNN. 27 September 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
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^ “Berlinale, The Festival, Awards & Juries, Prizes International Jury”. Berlinale.de. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
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a b “Roman Polanski Wins Best Director, Best Screenplay at France’s Lumiere Awards” Hollywood Reporter, 14 January 2010
Bibliography
Bugliosi, Vincent, with Gentry, Kurt, (1974) Helter Skelter, The Shocking Story of the Manson Murders, Arrow, London. ISBN 0-09-997500-9
Cronin, Paul (2005) Roman Polanski: Interviews, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. 200p
Farrow, Mia (1997). What Falls Away: A Memoir, New York: Bantam.
Feeney, F.X. (text); Duncan, Paul (visual design). (2006). Roman Polanski, Koln: Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-2542-5
Jacke, Andreas (2010): Roman Polanski—Traumatische Seelenlandschaften, Gießen: Psychosozial-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8379-2037-6, ISBN 978-3-8379-2037-6
Kael, Pauline, 5001 Nights At The Movies, Zenith Books, 1982. ISBN 0-09-933550-6
King, Greg, Sharon Tate and The Manson Murders, Barricade Books, New York, 2000. ISBN 1-56980-157-6
Leaming, Barbara (1981). Polanski, The Filmmaker as Voyeur: A Biography. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-24985-1.
Moldes, Diego : Roman Polanski. La fantasía del atormentado, Ediciones JC Clementine, Madrid, 2005. ISBN 84-89564-44-2. (Spanish)
Parker, John (1994). Polanski. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd. ISBN 0-575-05615-0.
Polanski, Roman (1973) Roman Polanski’s What? From the original screenplay, London: Lorrimer. 91p. ISBN 0-85647-033-3
Polanski, Roman (1973) What?, New York: Third press, 91p, ISBN 0-89388-121-X
Polanski, Roman (1975) Three film scripts: Knife in the water [original screenplay by Jerzy Skolimowski, Jakub Goldberg and Roman Polanski; translated by Boleslaw Sulik]; Repulsion [original screenplay by Roman Polanski and Gerard Brach]; Cul-de-sac [original screenplay by Roman Polanski and Gerard Brach], introduction by Boleslaw Sulik, New York: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 275p, ISBN 0-06-430062-5
Polanski, Roman (1984) Knife in the water, Repulsion and Cul-de-sac: three filmscripts by Roman Polanski, London: Lorrimer, 214p, ISBN 0-85647-051-1 (hbk) ISBN 0-85647-092-9 (pbk)
Polanski, Roman (1984, 1985) Roman by Polanski, New York: Morrow. ISBN 0-688-02621-4, London: Heinemann. London: Pan. 456p. ISBN 0-434-59180-7 (hbk) ISBN 0-330-28597-1 (pbk)
Polanski, Roman (2003) Le pianiste, Paris: Avant-Scene, 126p, ISBN 2-84725-016-6
Visser, John J. 2008 Satan-el: Fallen Mourning Star (Chapter 5). Covenant People’s Books. ISBN 978-0-557-03412-3
Young, Jordan R. (1987) The Beckett Actor: Jack MacGowran, Beginning to End. Beverly Hills: Moonstone Press ISBN 0-940410-82-6
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Roman Polanski
Feature films
Knife in the Water (1962)Repulsion (1965)Cul-de-Sac (1966)The Fearless Vampire Killers (1967)Rosemary’s Baby (1968)Macbeth (1971)What? (1972)Chinatown (1974)The Tenant (1976)Tess (1979)Pirates (1986)Frantic (1988)Bitter Moon (1992)Death and the Maiden (1994)The Ninth Gate (1999)The Pianist (2002)Oliver Twist (2005)The Ghost Writer (2010)Carnage (2011)Venus in Fur (2013)Based on a True Story (2017)
Short films
Rower (1955)Uśmiech zębiczny (1957)Rozbijemy zabawę (1957)Morderstwo (1957)Two Men and a Wardrobe (1958)Lampa (1959)When Angels Fall (1959)Le Gros et le maigre (1961)Ssaki (1962)La rivière de diamants (1964)Cinema Erotique (2007)A Therapy (2012)
Related
Sharon Tate (wife)Roman Polanski sexual abuse caseMia and RomanRoman Polanski: Wanted and DesiredThe Girl: A Life in the Shadow of Roman Polanski
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Awards for Roman Polanski
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Cannes Film Festival jury presidents
Authority control
WorldCat IdentitiesVIAF: 112552900LCCN: n79006350ISNI: 0000 0001 2148 0996GND: 118595431SELIBR: 279994SUDOC: 027915654BNF: cb12013767k (data)ULAN: 500274636MusicBrainz: eaf7db40-64ea-41f8-a137-d5757d9109e3NLA: 35426858NKC: js20020708005ICCU: IT\ICCU\CFIV\037416BNE: XX893736
Categories: Roman Polanski1933 birthsLiving people20th-century French male actors20th-century Polish male actors21st-century French male actors21st-century Polish male actors20th-century French writersBest Director BAFTA Award winnersBest Directing Academy Award winnersBest Director César Award winnersBest Director Golden Globe winnersEnglish-language film directorsEuropean Film Award for Best Director winnersBest Director Lumières Award winnersDirectors of Palme d’Or winnersFrench male film actorsFrench film directorsFrench film producersFrench JewsFrench people of Polish-Jewish descentFrench people of Russian descentFrench screenwritersMale screenwritersFrench sex offendersFugitives wanted by the United StatesFugitives wanted on sex crime chargesHolocaust survivorsKraków Ghetto inmatesMembers of the Académie des beaux-artsPeople from KrakówPeople from ŁódźMale actors from ParisPolish agnosticsPolish anti-communistsPolish emigrants to FrancePolish emigrants to the United StatesPolish expatriates in FrancePolish male film actorsPolish film directorsPolish film producersPolish JewsPolish people of Jewish descentPolish people of Russian descentPolish satiristsPolish male writersPolish screenwriters20th-century French criminals20th-century Polish criminalsPolish sex offendersPolish theatre directorsSilver Bear for Best Director recipientsPeople convicted of statutory rape offensesDavid di Donatello winnersNational Film School in Łódź alumniFrench rapistsPolish rapistsLaureates of the prix du BrigadierHorror film directors

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